AG2918 The Kairos Collection   
    
 The archival arrangement, description and encoding of the Kairos Collection were funded through a generous grant from the Royal Netherlands Embassy   
    
 Copyright 2010, Historical Papers, The Library, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa   
 Copyright 2007, The Library, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa   
 (First published 2003, Copyright The Library, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa)   
    
 Overview of the collection   
    
 Creator: The Kairos Foundation   
 Title: Kairos Collection   
 Dates: 1970-2002   
 Extent: 36 linear metres   
 Accession no: AG2918   
 Location: Historical Papers, William Cullen Library, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa   
    
 Collection arranged and described by Deborah Wilson, Jean Beater and Annoula Seldon, 2003   
 In June 2010, 46 items were digitised Deborah Wilson (Digital Archivist)   
    
 History of the Kairos Foundation   
 The Kairos Foundation (Stichting Kairos) was founded in 1970 as a support group for the Christian Institute in South Africa, whose general secretary was anti-apartheid activist Dr CF Beyers Naude. Kairos, a Greek word, means 'time is running out'. Until 1990 most of Kairos' attention focussed on violations of human rights in South Africa and mobilisation of support in the Netherlands for sanctions and disinvestment.   
 In the 1970s and 1980s the organisation focused on the causes of apartheid with campaigns aimed at Dutch firms active in the apartheid economy. Other campaigns were aimed at forced removals, detentions, torture in detention, the death sentence, children, conscription and the activities of the security forces.   
 Kairos' work was supported by many of the Dutch churches and there was co-operation from church circles in Southern Africa. Extensive contacts were made with black South African clerics studying in the Netherlands.Kairos mobilised attention on the disempowered and influenced public opinion through campaigns and publications.   
 Through Kairos, many South African organisations channelled information to international organisations and the media. From 1996-1997, Kairos researched the assault and torture of political prisoners in the 1960s and 1970s for the Truth and Reconciliation Commission.   
 After 1990 attention shifted to the consequences of apartheid and support for the reconstruction of the country. Youth development was given considerable attention with training, conferences, support and specialist input from experts in various fields to organisations involved in the development of the youth.   
 In 2002, the Kairos Foundation closed its doors. Its resource and research material was then donated to the University of the Witwatersrand.   
    
 Scope and contents   
 The collection material covers the years 1970 to 2002. Much of the material consists of copies with some exceptions. In co-operation with a large number of non-governmental organisations involved in human rights issues an extensive collection of reports, publications, pamphlets, telegrams and telexes, newsletters and letters was collected.   
 Later material, particularly in the Truth and Reconciliation Commission section was added from Internet news services and the TRC web site. There are a few letters from and to Kairos, but the bulk of the collection is Kairos' research and resource material. Kairos also developed a database and researched reports on detention, torture and deaths in detention for the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Kairos research reports and publications are to be found in most of the sections.   
    
 Arrangement   
 The material has been placed under the headings and generally in the order in which it was received. The item level description seldom provides detailed lists of all items, but is a sample of the material. There are eleven series. Within these, subject headings facilitate researcher access. The subject headings originate from the Kairos lists and file indexes where provided. The newspaper clippings are extensive. These have been ordered within subject headings and ordered by year.   
    
 Related material   
 Historical Papers is the custodian of numerous collections, of which a number are related to aspects of the Kairos Collection. A catalogue of these is available.   
    
 Separated material   
 Kairos has also donated audio-visual tapes of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission hearings. A list of these is available at Historical Papers. A small collection of ephemera consists of campaign buttons, stickers and postcards. A collection of posters contains campaign posters and a series of exhibition posters. Books donated by Kairos have been added to the Africana Library.   
    
 Information for users   
    
 Restrictions to access   
 Affidavits and sworn statements that have not been made public are only available with the permission of the person/s concerned. The affidavits in the Namibia section may not be used until 2010.   
    
 Preferred citation   
 [Identification of Item], The Kairos Collection, Historical Papers, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.   
    
 Copyright notice   
 Copyright in all original writings or works of whatever nature will remain vested with the creator of that original work. Individuals using these materials are responsible for conforming with copyright law.   
    
 CLASSIFICATION   
    
 (Archivist's note: Dates refer to the dates on the material.)   
    
LAND   
1.1. Homelands 1970 to 2001   
1.1.1. Ciskei   
1.1.2. Bophuthatswana   
1.1.3. Transkei   
1.1.4. Kangwane, Gazankulu, Lebowa, Kwandebele   
1.1.5. Venda   
1.1.6. QwaQwa/Botshabelo   
1.1.7. KwaZulu and Natal   
1.1.8. Homelands   
1.2. Resettlements   
1.2.1. Communities under threat of resettlement   
1.2.2. Cases of resettlement   
1.2.3. Informal settlers 1990-1996   
1.2.4. General   
1.2.5. Publications 1973-1991   
1.2.6. Western Cape   
1.3. Land reform   
1.3.1. General   
1.3.2. Political parties and churches   
1.4. Rural land   
1.4.1. Homelands   
1.4.2. Redistribution and transfer of state land   
1.4.3. Land claims and return to land   
1.4.4. Non-governmental organisations (NGOs)   
1.4.5. Rural women   
1.4.6. Legislation for resettlements and land   
1.4.7. Publications 1973-1994 (30 items)   
1.5. Agriculture and farm labour   
1.5.1. Agriculture   
1.5.2. Farm labour   
1.5.3. Publications 1977-1995   
1.6. Magazines, newsletters and reports   
1.6.1. Surplus People Project   
1.6.2. Farmworkers Research and Resource Project   
1.6.3. National Land Committee   
1.6.4. Environmental and Development Agency   
1.6.5. Development Bank of Southern Africa   
    
DETENTIONS AND TRIALS 1970 to 2000   
2.1. Detentions and trials   
2.1.1. Kairos case files   
2.1.2. Trial cases   
2.1.3. Detentions of clerics   
2.1.4. Documents   
2.1.5. Clippings   
2.2. Torture and deaths in detention   
2.2.1. Kairos case files   
2.2.2. Kairos TRC database of torture and deaths   
2.2.3. Interdicts 1985-1987)   
2.2.4 Reports   
2.2.5. Clippings and articles   
2.2.6. Publications, pamphlets and papers 1972-1989   
2.3. The death penalty and executions   
2.3.1. Kairos trial case files   
2.3.2. Reports and summaries   
2.3.3. Appeals and campaigns   
2.3.4. Death penalty   
2.3.5. Legislation and the constitution   
2.3.6. Hansard extracts 1988-1998   
2.3.7. Articles 1987-1990   
2.3.8. Clippings 1965-2000   
2.3.9. Publications   
2.4. Banning   
2.4.1. Banned individuals   
2.4.2. Reports and lists 1973-1989   
2.4.3. Campaigns 1980-1983)   
2.4.4. Banned organisations and meetings 1988-1989   
2.4.5. Clippings 1972-1989)   
2.4.6. Articles and reports 1973-1986   
2.5. Political prisoners   
2.5.1. Prisoners   
2.5.2. Amnesty   
2.5.3. Release of prisoners   
2.5.4. Released prisoners   
2.5.5. Publications and pamphlets   
2.6. Conditions in prison and detention   
2.6.1. Medical   
2.6.2. Legal   
2.6.3. General conditions   
2.6.4. Hunger strikes   
2.6.5. Women 1988-1994   
2.6.6. Policy development 1994-1997   
2.6.7. Clippings 1967-2000   
2.6.8. Hansard extracts 1984-1995   
2.6.9. Publications and articles 1967-1994)   
2.7. Non-governmental organisations   
2.7.1. Detainees Parents Support Committee   
2.7.2. Detainees Aid Committee 1987-1989   
2.7.3. Dependants Conference 1972-1987)   
2.8. Security legislation and the judicial process   
2.8.1. Articles: 1982-1983   
2.9. General resources   
2.9.1. Lists 1982-1985   
2.9.2. Papers and reports 1979-1987   
2.9.3. Publications and pamphlets 1970-1994   
VIOLENCE 1972 to 2001   
3.1. Police violence   
3.1.1. Langa and KwaNobuhle, Uitenhage   
3.1.2. Langa and Nyanga, Cape Town   
3.1.3. Municipal police and kitskonstabels   
3.1.4. General   
3.1.5. Background information   
3.1.6. Publications   
3.2. South African Defence Force (SADF)   
3.2.1. Clippings 1989-1995   
3.2.2. Documents 1980-1994)   
3.2.3. Publications 1991)   
3.3. Assassinations and the third force   
3.3.1. Assassinations   
3.3.2. Covert activities   
3.4. Organisational violence   
3.4.1. Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP)   
3.4.2. African National Congress (ANC)   
3.4.3. Azanian Peoples Liberation Army (APLA) 1993-1995)   
3.4.4. Pan Africanist Students Organisation (PASO) 1993-1994)   
3.4.5. Right-wing violence   
3.5. Civil violence   
3.5.1. Vigilantism   
3.5.2. Self defence units (SDUs) 1991-1995   
3.5.3. Hostel violence 1990-1996)   
3.5.4. Weapons and violence 1989-1996   
3.5.5. Sexual violence 1984-2001   
3.5.6. Church and violence 1990-1995   
3.5.7. Corporal punishment 1984-2000   
3.5.8. Taxi violence 1989-1997   
3.5.9. Ethnic violence 1991-1993   
3.5.10. Witch killing and ritual murder 1987-1999   
3.5.11. Train violence 1990-1994   
3.6. Regional violence   
3.6.1. Pretoria-Witwatersrand-Vaal   
3.6.2. KwaZulu Natal 1985-2000   
3.6.3. General regional violence   
3.7. Peoples courts and popular justice   
3.7.1. Clippings 1986-2000   
3.7.2. Documents 1990-1991   
3.7.3. Reports, Wilfried Scharf 1990-1991   
3.7.4. Papers and articles 1989-1999   
3.8. Crime   
3.8.1. Clippings 1990-2001   
3.8.2. Documents   
3.8.3. Hansard extracts 1993-1996   
3.8.4. Articles and reports 1995-1997   
3.8.5. Publications and pamphlets 1958-1998   
3.9. Peace initiatives and programmes   
3.9.1. Peace initiatives   
3.9.2. National Peace Accord   
3.9.3. International hearing July 1992   
3.9.4. Political parties 1991-1993   
3.9.5. Hansard extracts 1991-1994   
3.9.6. Legislation 1992-1995   
3.9.7. Pamphlets and brochures 1991-1993   
3.10. Commissions   
3.10.1. Harms Commission   
3.10.2. Cillie Commission   
3.10.3. Goldstone Commission   
3.11. General resources   
3.11.1. Clippings   
3.11.2. Publications, pamphlets and books 1962-1998   
3.11.3. Reports and papers   
    
TRUTH AND RECONCILIATION COMMISSION C.1900, 1977 to 2002   
4.1. Establishment of the TRC   
4.1.1. Submissions and proposals 1994   
4.1.2. Conferences 1992-1994   
4.1.3. Bills 1990-1997   
4.1.4. Clippings 1991-1996   
4.1.5. Documents 1992-1997   
4.2. The Commission   
4.2.1. Documents 1997-1998   
4.3. Submissions and hearings   
4.3.1. Armed forces   
4.3.2. Church/faith hearings Sept 1997   
4.3.3. Conscription 23 Jul 1997   
4.3.4. Health sector Jun 1997   
4.3.5. Human rights abuses in Natal Midlands 23 Jul 1996   
4.3.6. Human rights violations 27 May 1997   
4.3.7. Independent Newspapers 1997   
4.3.8. Political parties   
4.3.9. Prisons July 1997   
4.3.10. Relevance of economic, social, cultural rights 18 Mar 1997   
4.3.11. State Security Council 14 Oct 1997   
4.3.12. Survivors perceptions of the TRC 7 April 1998   
4.3.13. Youth 22 May 1977   
4.4. Amnesty   
4.4.1. Applications, hearings and decisions   
4.4.2. Media releases 1997-2000   
4.4.3. TRC Amnesty Reports 1997   
4.4.4. Internet reports 1996-1999   
4.4.5. Clippings 1997-1999   
4.4.6. Kairos Special Report Tapes Jan 1997-Mar 1998   
4.5. TRC reports and articles   
4.5.1. Final TRC report 1996-2000   
4.5.2. TRC Research Department reports 1997   
4.5.3. Statements and meetings 1996-1998   
4.5.4. Articles 1996-1998   
4.6. Reparations   
4.6.1. Clippings 1997-2002   
4.6.2. Documents 1995-1998   
4.7. Resources   
4.7.1. Analysis of the TRC 1995-2000   
4.7.2. Reconciliation and reparation   
4.7.3. Truth and justice 1996-1999   
4.7.4. International comparisons   
4.7.5. Parliament   
4.7.6. Church and religion   
4.7.7. Authors and essays   
4.7.8. Conferences and meetings 1988-2000   
4.7.9. Historical context   
4.7.10 .General TRC resources   
    
CONSTITUTION 1970 to 2001   
5.1. Tricameral Parliament   
5.2. Legal status of the Government   
5.3. Development of the new Constitution   
5.4. Constitutional Court   
5.5. Bill of Rights   
5.5.1. General 1989-1996   
5.5.2. African National Congress (ANC) 1990 -1993   
5.5.3. Government and National Party 1989-1993   
5.5.4. Democratic Party (DP) 1993   
5.5.5. Inkatha and KwaZulu-Natal 1990-1993   
5.6. Traditional authorities   
5.6.1. Clippings 1994-2000   
5.6.2. Documents 1994-1995   
    
HUMAN RIGHTS 1962 to 2001   
6.1. Human rights under apartheid   
6.1.1. Clippings 1978-1996   
6.1.2. Documents 1962-1989   
6.2. Human rights discourse   
6.2.1. Clippings 1982-2001   
6.2.2. Documents 1984-2000   
6.3. Justice and the law   
6.3.1. Hoexter Commission 1983   
6.3.2. Rabie Commission   
6.3.3. Other commissions 1966-1992   
6.3.4. Legislation   
6.3.5. Judicial process   
6.3.6. Legal profession   
6.3.7. Status of liberation movement 1980-1989   
6.3.8. General legal resources   
6.4. Press and media   
6.4.1. Clippings 1977-1989   
6.4.2. Documents 1986-1988   
6.5. Sport 1973-1995   
6.5.1. Clippings 1979-1995   
6.5.2. Documents 1973-1988   
6.5.3. Pamphlets   
6.5.4. Magazines 1968-1990   
6.6. Refugees and exiles   
6.6.1. UN High Commission on Refugees 1991   
6.6.2. Repatriation of South African exiles 1990-1991   
6.6.3. Indemnity 1990-1992   
6.6.4. Documents 1990-1993   
6.6.5. Clippings 1990-1992   
6.7. The United Nations   
6.7.1. Human Rights Commission 1968-1995   
6.7.2. General Assembly 1977-1994   
6.7.3. Security Council 1992   
6.7.4. Centre for Human Rights 1991   
6.7.5. Clippings 1983-1999   
6.7.6. Documents 1948-1994   
6.8. Amnesty International   
6.8.1. Documents   
6.8.2. Urgent Action 1984-1995   
6.8.3. Reports 1989-1994   
6.8.4. Yearbooks 1975-1990   
6.8.5. Clippings 1986-1993   
6.9. Human Rights Commission 1988-1994   
6.10. Reports and brochures 1987-1997   
6.11. Publications 1988-1998   
    
CONSCRIPTION 1978 to 1994   
7.1. Conscientious objectors   
7.1.1. Clippings 1978-1993   
7.1.2. Documents 1975-1983   
7.1.3. Cases 1982-1990   
7.2. End Conscription Campaign (ECC)   
7.2.1. Clippings 1984-1994   
7.2.2. Documents   
    
CHILDREN AND YOUTH 1976 to 2002   
8.1. Street children   
8.1.1. Clippings 1986-2000   
8.1.2. Documents and reports 1991-1995   
8.2. Children in detention   
8.2.1. Detention and prison   
8.2.2. Re-orientation camps   
8.2.3. Cases of children in detention   
8.2.4. Torture   
8.2.5. Missing children 1985-1986   
8.3. Children and violence   
8.3.1. Political violence and crime   
8.3.2. Child abuse   
8.3.3. Child prostitution   
8.3.4. General resources   
8.4. Child labour   
8.4.1. Clippings 1987-2000   
8.4.2. Documents 1991-1993   
8.5. Childrens health   
8.5.1. Clippings 1982-2000   
8.5.2. Publications and reports 1984-1989   
8.6. The effects of apartheid on children   
8.6.1. Clippings 1986-1999   
8.6.2. Documents and reports 1991-2000   
8.7. Rehabilitation and education of children   
8.7.1. Clippings 1986-2001   
8.7.2. Documents 1991-1999   
8.8. Juvenile justice 1993-1995   
8.9. Children and repression   
8.9.1. Clippings 1985-1990   
8.9.2. Reports and publications 1986-1993   
    
MAGAZINES 1970 to 2001   
9.1. Abstracts Journal   
9.1.1. 1985-1989   
9.1.2. 1991-1995   
9.1.3. 1996-2001   
9.1.4. Related material 1989-1993   
9.2. Amandla   
9.2.1. 1977-1986   
9.2.2. 1987-1996   
9.3. The African Communist   
9.3.1. 1983-1992   
9.3.2. 1993-2001   
9.4. ANC Weekly News Briefing   
9.4.1. 1978   
9.4.2. 1979   
9.4.3. 1980   
9.4.4. 1981-1983   
9.4.5. 1984-1986   
9.4.6. 1987-1988   
9.4.7. 1989-1990   
9.5. Azania 1981-1995   
9.6. Azania Contact 1980-1981   
9.7. Azania Frontline 1983   
9.8. Azania News 1980-1982   
9.9. Azania Today 1980-1982   
9.10. Facts and Reports   
9.10.1. 1973-1975   
9.10.2. 1976-1978   
9.10.3. 1979-1981   
9.10.4. 1982-1984   
9.10.5. 1985-1987   
9.10.6. 1988-1990   
9.10.7. 1991-1993   
9.10.8. 1994-1995   
9.11. Kairos Berichten 1972-1976   
9.12. SIM   
9.12.1. Netherlands Quarterly of Human Rights   
9.12.2. SIM Specials 1983-1999   
9.12.3. Human Rights in Development Yearbook 1998   
9.13. Sechaba   
9.13.1. 1969-1975   
9.13.2. 1976-1982   
9.13.3. 1983-1990   
9.14. Shirebu   
9.14.1. Newsletter on oil embargo against South Africa 1985-1994   
9.14.2. Surveys and publications 1980-1991   
9.14.3. Related publications from Kairos 1976-1986   
9.15. Umsebenzi 1989   
9.16. Workers Unity 1980-1989   
    
10 NAMIBIA 1970S to early 1990S   
10.1. Human rights   
10.1.1. Court cases   
10.1.2. Affidavits   
10.1.3. Clippings   
10.1.4. Documents   
10.1.5. Reports 1986-1990   
10.2. Military activities   
10.2.1. Clippings 1981-1991   
10.2.2. Documents 1980-1988   
10.3. Economic affairs   
10.3.1. Clippings and articles 1971-2000   
10.3.2. Documents   
10.4. Education and health   
10.4.1. Clippings 1981-2001   
10.4.2. Documents   
10.5. Culture and the media   
10.5.1. Clippings 1980-2001   
10.5.2. Documents   
10.6. Women   
10.6.1. Clippings 1983-1996   
10.6.2. Documents 1983-1992   
10.7. Minorities   
10.7.1. Clippings 1982-1994   
10.7.2. Documents 1990-2000   
10.8. Church   
10.8.1. General church   
10.8.2. Social services   
10.8.3. Detentions and violence 1981-1989   
10.8.4. Delegations and representations   
10.8.5. Church people and politics   
10.8.6. The Post-independence church   
10.9. South-West African Peoples Organisation (SWAPO)   
10.9.1. Clippings 1981-1996   
10.9.2. Documents 1976-1987   
10.9.3. Articles, press releases and pamphlets 1980-1989   
10.10. Refugees   
10.10.1. Clippings 1981-1995   
10.10.2. Documents 1979-1981   
10.11. Occupation to independence   
10.11.1. Clippings 1971-2000   
10.11.2. Documents   
10.11.3. Press releases and statements 1978-1997   
10.11.4. Articles, reports and pamphlets 1984-1992   
10.11.5. United Nations documents   
10.12. Legislation and the law   
10.12.1. Legislation and Acts 1977-1989   
10.12.2. Van Dyk Commission 1981-1988   
10.12.3. Clippings 1981-1988   
10.12.4. Documents 1984-1991   
10.13. Press and other resources   
10.13.1. Clippings 1980-2000   
10.13.2. Organisations publications 1977-1991   
10.13.3. Newspapers   
10.13.4 General resources   
    
11 ORGANISATIONS AND CAMPAIGNS 1972 to 2001   
11.1. Stichting voor het Nieuwe Zuid-Afrika (NZA)   
11.1.1. Establishment and work of the NZA 1993-2001   
11.1.2. Communication with Kairos 1994-1996   
11.1.3. Mozambique 1997-1998   
11.1.4. Project funding 1994-1998   
11.1.5. Bestuur / Management Board   
11.1.6. Raad van Toezicht 1994-1998   
11.1.7. Contactpersonen Invulling Spiegelfunctie 1995-1998   
11.1.8. Financial documents 1994-1998   
11.1.9. Reports   
11.1.10. Conferences, seminars and workshops 1995-2000   
11.2. Church and theological organisations   
11.2.1. WCC Programme to Combat Racism 1980-1987   
11.2.2. Ecumenical Research Exchange 1979   
11.2.3. Christian Institute of Southern Africa 1972   
11.2.4. Het Wereldvenster, Epo Pax Christi, Kairos 1989   
11.2.5. Ministers Fraternal 1977   
11.2.6. Ten Have, Ikon 1986   
11.2.7. Kuyper Voordracth, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam 1999   
11.2.8. Catholic Institute for International Relations (CIIR) 1989   
11.2.9. Mandela Reeks, Rijksuniversiteit te Utrecht 1989   
11.2.10. Gereformeerde Kerken, Nederlandse Hervormde Kerk 1982   
11.2.11. Concerned Evangelicals   
11.2.12. Northern Transvaal Ecumenical Confessing Fellowship   
11.2.13. Christians for Justice and Peace   
11.3. The Kairos Foundation 1977-2000   
11.4. African National Congress (ANC)   
11.4.1. Policy, constitutional and discussion documents 1986-1992   
11.4.2. Conferences, reports and resolutions 1985-1994   
11.4.3. Resource material 1982-1991   
11.4.4. Religious material 1987   
11.5. Dr Govan Mbeki Fund 1990   
11.6. 'Unlock apartheids jails' campaign 1987   
11.7. 'Its not fair in Southern Africa' campaign   
11.8. Detentions and release of detainees campaigns   
11.9. 'Struggle against apartheid' campaigns   
11.10. Azanian Students Organisation (AZAPO)   
11.11. National Union of South African Students   
11.12. Miscellaneous campaigns   
11.13. Posters   
11.14. Photographs   
11.15. Ephemera   
    
 INVENTORY LISTING   
LAND   
 The rights to own land and to live and work at a place of choice were circumscribed by apartheid. Legislation that preceded the period reflected in this material includes the 1913 Natives Land Act. It prescribed areas for land ownership according to race. In many instances black landowners and tenants were forced off their land. The Natives Act of 1923 segregated ownership of urban land, allocating areas on the periphery of towns and cities for black townships or locations. Later the Prevention of Illegal Squatters Act of 1951 laid the basis for the removal of people occupying land illegally.   
 Kairos campaigns that dealt with land issues include:   
 1977 Crossroads See 1.2.6.1.8. and 1.2.6.3.   
 1981 Slegs vir Swartes See 1.2.5   
 1982 'Stop forced removals in South Africa.   
 Campaign against removal of the Nyanga Bush people. See 1.2.6.1.4. and 1.2.6.3.   
 Focus on Ciskei bus boycott. See 1.1.1.1.   
 1983-1984 Trial of S Mkhatswha in the Ciskei. See 1.1.2.1.1.   
 1984 Campaign Kaapstad wanhoopt (cry of despair). Threatened removal of residents from Crossroads, Nyanga, to Khayelitsha. See 1.2.5.1.10., 1.2.6.1.4., 1.2.6.1.8., 1.2.6.1.9., and 1.2.6.3.   
 1991 Campaigns against the removal of residents of Goedgevonden. Support for the land claims of the people from Elandskloof. See 1.4.3.3.   
 1992 Support for Vastenaktie project, AFRA. See 1.5.2.9.   
 1993 Special Amandla about land issues. See 1.3.1.3.2. Investigation by Mirjam van Donk about the church in relationship to land issues. See 1.3.2.3. and 1.4.7.   
    
 Subjects include homelands, resettlements, informal settlements, squatters, resistance, land and labour legislation, boycotts, migrant workers, agriculture and labour.   
 Unpublished material may only be quoted with the permission of the author.   
 The material dates from 1970 to 2001. Dates refer to the dates on the material. Some material, particularly from the 1970s and early 1980s is undated or dates are illegible.   
    
 Three main categories of material are used:   
 Clippings consist of popular newspaper and magazine articles   
 Documents include organisational newsletters, Hansard extracts, published and unpublished reports, Amnesty International press alerts and notes   
 Publications include government issues of tourist and investment brochures, conference and study papers, publications issued by non-governmental and political groups, copies of legislation, handbooks, publications from international, anti-apartheid organisations and churches   
    
1.1. Homelands   
 The homelands policy was developed by the Nationalist government to enforce apartheid or separate development by removing blacks to separate areas, based on tribal groups.   
1.1.1. Ciskei   
 Ciskei was integrated into Eastern Cape province after the 1994 elections.   
1.1.1.1. Bus boycott   
 The boycott began in 1983 as a result of a 10% increase in bus fares. It started in Mdantsane and the government, headed by Lennox Sebe responded aggressively.   
1.1.1.1.1. Clippings 1983-1984 (1 file)   
 Reports include the violence used to end the boycott and the arrest of hundreds of people.   
1.1.1.1.2. Affidavits 1983 (1 file)   
 Affidavits from victims of assault by Ciskei police.   
1.1.1.1.3. Documents 1983-1984 (16 items)   
 Included is information about trade unions that supported the boycott such as the South African Allied Workers Union and reports about the deteriorating political situation in Ciskei. Werksgroep Kairos material also covers the bus boycott with reports from Auret van Heerden and Kate Philip.   
1.1.1.1.3.1 The new Constitution in South Africa and killings and repression in "Ciskei" United Nations' Centre against Apartheid November 1983. 
1.1.1.1.3.2 Ciskei The great South African lie NUSAS 10th Oct 1983 
1.1.1.1.3.3 Joint statement issued by UDF, FOSATU, etc and the Detainees Support Committee UDF, trade unions, Detainees Support Committee 20th Sep 1983 
1.1.1.1.3.4 Mdantsane - Township in crisis South African Catholic Bishops Conference undated 
1.1.1.2. General   
 Includes material about Ciskei in general.   
1.1.1.2.1. Clippings 1977-1996 (14 files)   
 Subjects include independence, political unrest and repression, Charles and Lennox Sebe, the coup in 1990, Oupa Gqozo and the Bisho massacre in 1992.   
1.1.1.2.2. Documents 1983-1990 (18 items)   
 Journal and Amnesty International articles cover political unrest, detentions, and the deportation of academics. There are also affidavits by Potsdam residents about forced incorporation into Ciskei.   
    
1.1.1.3. Publications 1981-1983 (6 items)   
 Include:   
 Ciskei National Tourist Office:   
 Ciskei, yours to explore   
 Other:   
 Africas most beautiful business, Ciskei   
 Ciskei An1, PICA Internationale, Paris, 1981   
    
1.1.2. Bophuthatswana   
 Incorporated into part of North West, Gauteng and Free State provinces after the 1994 elections.   
1.1.2.1. Land and repression   
 The Bophuthatswana government had opted for 'independence' and responded to resistance through the courts and the use of force.   
1.1.2.1.1. Clippings 1973-1992 (8 files)   
 Include material about the establishment of the homeland, the incorporation of communities and the suppression of a coup in 1988. A clipping reports on the Kairos observer from the International Commission of Jurists who attended the trial of S Mkhatswha in Ciskei.   
1.1.2.1.2. Documents 1983-1994 (4 files)   
 Subjects include political activity, attempts by the Bophuthatswana government to suppress political activity and details about detainees' hunger strikes.   
    
1.1.2.2. General   
 Subjects cover general Bophuthatswana current affairs.   
1.1.2.2.1. Clippings 1978-1995 (5 files)   
 Subjects include independence, the building of Sun City, coups, states of emergency, political unrest and repression, the right-wing incursion into the homeland and subsequent death of three right-wingers.   
    
1.1.2.3. Publications 1977-1990 (3 items)   
 Include:   
 Black Sash:   
1.1.2.3.1 Grasping the prickly pear, the Bophuthatswana story, 1990 Black Sash 1990 
 Other:   
 The Republic of Bophuthatswana, 1977   
    
1.1.3. Transkei   
 Now forms part of Eastern Cape Province.   
1.1.3.1. Land and repression   
 Eastern Cape was traditionally a site of black resistance, resulting in significant opposition to independence.   
1.1.3.1.1. Clippings 1981-1995 (6 files)   
 Cover opposition to the Transkei government, the outlawing of political activity and the arrest of activists.   
1.1.3.1.2. Documents 1981-1993 (1 file)   
 Include information about detentions, deaths and deportations in Transkei.   
    
1.1.3.2. General   
 Material about Transkei current affairs.   
1.1.3.2.1. Clippings 1975-1992 (13 files)   
 Subjects include independence, the Matanzima brothers, the banning of the Methodist Church in 1978, corruption and coups.   
1.1.3.2.2. Documents 1976 (3 items)   
 Information about the Status of Transkei Bill and a copy of the speech of the South African President at Transkeis independence celebrations on 25 October 1976.   
    
1.1.3.3. Publications 1970-1984 (5 items)   
 Include:   
 Business Day:   
 Transkei, A special report, Johannesburg, Thursday 30 August 1984   
 Transkei Development Corporation, Transkei:   
 An opening for profit, Umtata, Transkei Study Project   
 Transkei Independence Report, September 1976, Johannesburg   
 Jeff Leeuwenburg:   
 Transkei, a study in economic regression, London, 1977   
 Other:   
 Yesterday, today, tomorrow, Republic of Transkei, 1970   
    
1.1.4. Kangwane, Gazankulu, Lebowa, Kwandebele   
 Now form part of Limpopo and Mpumalanga provinces.   
1.1.4.1. Moutse   
 Moutse was an over-populated area in Lebowa that was to be forcibly incorporated into Kwandebele, a reward from the Nationalist Government for Kwandebeles acceding to 'independence'. Opposition to the incorporation of the area led to violence and many deaths.   
1.1.4.1.1. Clippings 1983-1992 (1 file)   
 Include articles about the reasons for the opposition to the incorporation of Moutse and about violence, deaths and vigilantism.   
1.1.4.1.2. Affidavits 1986 (2 items)   
 By Moutse residents assaulted by the police.   
1.1.4.1.3. Documents 1983-1991 (17 items)   
 Include Hansard extracts, articles about the incorporation and resistance to the incorporation of Moutse area into Kwandebele.   
1.1.4.1.3.1 Newsletter No 10 April 1986 Moutse TRAC April 1986. 
    
1.1.4.2. General   
 General information and news reports about the four homelands.   
1.1.4.2.1. Clippings 1974-1994 (11 files)   
 A file for each homeland includes reports about commissions of enquiry, poverty, political unrest and disputes over borders.   
1.1.4.2.2. Documents 1976-1993 (4 files)   
 Include reports, journal articles and Hansard extracts about the struggle against independence in some of the homelands, the Ingwavuma/Kangwane land deal and legislation pertaining to some of the homelands.   
    
1.1.4.3. Publications 1984-1986 (2 items)   
 Include:   
 The Commission of Inquiry into Kangwane:   
1.1.4.3.1 Kwandebele, The struggle against independence TRAC undated 
 The Rumpff Commission, In re the matter of the cession of Kangwane to Swaziland, brief of the Lawyers Committee for Civil Rights under the law of the United States of America as Amicus Curiae,13 Mar 1984, Washington, DC   
 Transvaal Rural Action Committee:   
    
1.1.5. Venda   
 Now forms part of Limpopo province.   
1.1.5.1. Clippings 1976-1994 (4 files)   
 Include articles about independence, political violence and intimidation, detentions and public service strikes.   
1.1.5.2. Documents 1982-1990 (1 file)   
 Amnesty International and other organisation reports and newsletters regarding the repression of Church activities and mass arrests of political opponents.   
1.1.5.3. Publications 1983 (1 item)   
 Venda on the move, 1983   
    
1.1.6. QwaQwa/Botshabelo   
 Now forms part of Free State province.   
1.1.6.1. Clippings 1974-1994 (3 files)   
 Subjects include poverty, the incorporation of Botshabelo into QwaQwa and political unrest.   
1.1.6.2. Documents 1982-1988 (2 files)   
 Documents include Hansard extracts about legislation and proclamations, copies of documents concerning legal action taken opposing the incorporation of Botshabelo into the homeland and the subsequent judgement.   
1.1.6.3. Publications 1980-1991 (30 items)   
 Include:   
 Agriqwa Limited:   
 Annual report 1990   
 Auditor-General, Republic of South Africa:   
 Report of the Auditor-General on the accounts of the QwaQwa government and of the lower authorities in the area for the financial year 1980-1981   
 Report of the Auditor-General on the accounts of the QwaQwa Government and of the lower authorities in the Area for the Financial Year 1989-1990   
 Head of Tourism, Witsieshoek:   
 QwaQwa, tourist paradise   
 Kairos:   
 South Africa, human rights flyer, Utrecht, June 1987   
 National Committee Against Removals:   
 Botshabelo, Incorporation now, independence next? Cape Town, 1987   
 QwaQwa Development Corporation Limited:   
 Annual report 1989   
 Annual report 1990 Pehelo ya selemo   
 Economic opportunities in QwaQwa   
 Infrastructure in QwaQwa   
 Manpower development in QwaQwa, November 1988   
 Qqnews Staff newsletter vol 3 no 11, 27 September 1991   
 QwaQwa: an offer that labour-intensive industry cant refuse, Phuthaditjhaba   
 QwaQwa Government, Republic of South Africa:   
 QwaQwa Official Gazette 15 September 1989, vol 16, no 43   
 QwaQwa housing, First annual report 1990   
 QwaQwa Tourism and Nature Conservation:   
 QwaQwa   
 Rapport:   
 QwaQwa 15 jaar, Stocks and Stocks, newspaper supplement, 5 November 1989   
 Sunday Times:   
 The Free State Highlands, Newspaper supplement, 21 April 1991   
 J Erasmus:   
 Economic and social memorandum, Region c 1991, Information Clearing House, draft, 1991   
 PS Pholela:   
 QwaQwa Beraad 88, Verslag aan adviesraad, 23 February 1989, Witsieshoek   
 John Pickles and Jeff Woods:   
 Taiwanese investment in South Africa   
 Other:   
 Adviesraadvergadering, Number 20, 23 September 1983, Botshabelo   
 Fokus op QwaQwa, Friday, 29 June 1990   
 Informa, June 1982, vol XXIX, no 5   
    
1.1.7. KwaZulu and Natal   
 KwaZulu homeland was formed from areas of the old Natal province. The homeland, led by Mangosuthu Buthelezi, refused independence.   
1.1.7.1. Clippings 1979-1994 (9 files)   
 File with articles from newspapers and magazines; events include the internecine violence between the Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP), United Democratic Front (UDF) and ANC, the relationship between KwaZulu and Natal and the economy and governance of KwaZulu.   
1.1.7.2. Documents 1983-1993 (3 files)   
 Journal articles, Hansard extracts, Constitutional proposals. Also see 5., a Natal flood report and legislation regarding the homeland.   
1.1.7.3. Publications 1993 (1 item)   
 A helping hand for those in need, Natal KwaZulus Joint Services Board, Advertising supplement to the Sunday Tribune, November 7, 1993.   
    
1.1.8. Homelands   
 The material covers the establishment of the homelands and internal and external opposition to the forced inclusion of thousands of blacks in the enforcement of the policy of apartheid or separate development.   
1.1.8.1. Clippings 1975-1992 (9 files)   
 Include articles about economic development, foreign aid, relationship between the South African Government and the homelands, loss of South African citizenship by those living in the homelands, and corruption.   
1.1.8.2. Publications 1969-1995 (25 items)   
 Include material about the policy of the establishment of homelands and the political and economic conditions in the homelands.   
 Items include:   
 African Institute of South Africa:   
 Black homelands in South Africa, T Malan, PS Hattingh, Pretoria   
 Black Sash:   
 South Africa: a land divided, edited by Ethel Walt and based on the original map produced by Barbara Waite in 1977   
 CAFOD Campaign, 1983   
 Families divided: migrant labour in South Africa, London   
 Centre for African Studies, University of Cape Town:   
 Comparative or cumulative advantage? The impact of industrial location policies on bantustan settlements, Laurine Platzky, Africa seminar, 1993   
 Christian Aid:   
 Family life and migrant labour in South Africa, Andrew Hutchinson, editor, London, May 1982   
 Denver Journal of International Law and Policy:   
 South Africas independent homelands, An exercise in denationalisation, John Dugard, vol 10, no 1, Fall 1980   
 A Fund for Free Expression Report   
 Human rights in the homelands, South Africas delegation of repression, New York, 1984   
 Governments of the Republics of South Africa, Transkei, Bophuthatswana, Venda, Ciskei:   
 The promotion of industrial development as an element of a co-ordinated regional development strategy for Southern Africa, October 1995, published by the Secretariat for Multilateral Co-operation in Southern Africa on behalf of the Republics of South Africa, Transkei, Bophuthatswana, Venda and Ciskei   
 Informationsdienst Sdliches Afrika:   
 Homelands in Sdafrica, no 7 December 1984, Sdafrika im Aufstand   
 International Confederation of Free Trade Unions:   
 The bantustans, repression in South Africa, a case study, Brussels   
 International Defence and Aid Fund Pamphlet:   
 South Africa, the Bantu homelands, Barbara Rogers, London, 1972   
 Missionair centrum Heerlen:   
 Zuid-Africa, Thuislanden, Als verbanningsoord, Informatie no 21, August 1981   
 National Land Committee:   
 The bantustans in crisis, Westro, Johannesburg, June 1990   
 The Scandinavian Institute of African Studies:   
 South African bantustans, from dumping grounds to battlefronts, Bertil Eger, Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Upsala, 1991   
 The South African Institute of Race Relations:   
 Tomlinson Commission Report, a selection, ch 8, Land tenure; p 116, Land Tenure Index, Part V, Recommendations and possible implications   
 The Tomlinson Report, A summary of the Findings and Recommendations in the Tomlinson Commission Report, D Hobart Houghton, Professor of Economics, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, 1969   
 South African Research Service:   
 Homeland tragedy, function and farce (2 copies), DSG/SARS Information Publication 6, Yeoville, South Africa, 1982   
 United Nations Centre Against Apartheid:   
 Self-determination and the Independent Bantustans, Notes and documents, Niall MacDermot, October 1984   
 Werkgroep Kairos:   
 Deportaties en schijn-naties, deportaties en gedwongen hervestigingen in Zuid-Afrika gedurende 1983, Utrecht, Zoetermeer, 20 December 1983   
 Minstens 3 miljoen mensen gedeporteerd, Zoetermeer, 22 September 1981, 7p   
 Other:   
 De Loor Report, Part 1   
 Work in Progress 18, Yeoville, South Africa, 1981   
    
1.2. Resettlements   
 Resettlement of black communities freed areas zoned for white occupation. There was a renewed drive by the government during the 1970s and 1980s to remove 'surplus' blacks from rural and urban areas. They were incorporated into homelands, resettled in areas distant from white communities. Continued occupation of land rezoned for white occupation brought blacks into conflict with the law.   
 Rural people seeking employment in urban areas settled in informal settlements in and around cities and towns. Some of these communities were forcibly removed to rural areas.   
 The material relates to communities that were under threat of resettlement or those that were resettled. Western Cape resettlements are covered extensively in 1.2.2. Also see   
 The documents include unpublished reports, newsletters and pamphlets from non-governmental organisations that highlight the situation of those forcibly resettled. Publications include case studies and reports from NGOs such as the Association for Rural Advancement and the Black Sash.   
1.2.1. Communities under threat of resettlement   
 These files were compiled by Kairos and contain clippings, affidavits, court documents, and letters to SA Government ministers and overseas organisations. There are also reports from NGOs and churches active in these areas. Newspaper clippings cover the conditions, the protest activities and government responses to resistance. Some of these communities initiated court actions and tried to negotiate with the authorities on decisions taken to resettle them.   
1.2.1.1. Bafokeng 1982-1991 (1 file)   
 1.2.1.1. to 1.2.1.11. in same file   
1.2.1.2. Bekkersdal   
 1.2.1.1. to 1.2.1.11. in same file   
1.2.1.3. Bhekumthetho   
 1.2.1.1. to 1.2.1.11. in same file   
1.2.1.4. Boons   
 1.2.1.1. to 1.2.1.11. in same file   
1.2.1.5. Cathcart   
 1.2.1.1. to 1.2.1.11. in same file   
1.2.1.6. Chesterville   
 1.2.1.1. to 1.2.1.11. in same file   
1.2.1.7. Huhudi   
 1.2.1.1. to 1.2.1.11. in same file   
1.2.1.8. Khutsong   
 1.2.1.1. to 1.2.1.11. in same file   
1.2.1.9. Duncan Village   
 1.2.1.1. to 1.2.1.11. in same file   
1.2.1.10. Krugersdorp   
 1.2.1.1. to 1.2.1.11. in same file   
1.2.1.11. Kwelerha   
 1.2.1.1. to 1.2.1.11. in same file   
1.2.1.12. Bloedfontein, Machakeneng and Geweerfontein 1982-1991 (1 file)   
 1.2.1.12. to 1.2.1.14. in same file   
 Includes copies of photos of community leaders who organised to prevent resettlement. Also includes correspondence.   
1.2.1.13. Machakeneng   
 1.2.1.12. to 1.2.1.14. in same file   
1.2.1.14. Geweerfontein   
 1.2.1.12. to 1.2.1.14. in same file   
1.2.1.15. Driefontein 1983-1997 (1 file)   
 Includes a draft report about the shooting of Paul Mkhize, undated. Also a letter to PW Botha, SA State President, and court papers.   
1.2.1.16. Lawaaikamp 1982-1994 (4 files)   
1.2.1.17. Kleinskool 1985-1988 (1 file)   
1.2.1.18. Mathopestad 1983-1986 (1 file)   
1.2.1.19. Matjieskloof 1991-1992 (1 file)   
1.2.1.20. Mgwali 1982-1989 (2 files)   
1.2.1.21. Peelton 1988-1991 (1 file)   
1.2.1.22. KwaNgema, Daggakraal and Driefontein 1982-1985 (1 file)   
1.2.1.23. Oukasie, Brits 1986-1991 (1 file)   
1.2.1.24. Namaqualand 1985-1991 (1 file)   
1.2.1.25. Lesseyton 1980-1993 (1 file)   
 1.2.1.25. to 1.2.1.34. in same file   
1.2.1.26. Onderstepoort   
 1.2.1.25. to 1.2.1.34. in same file   
1.2.1.27. Mboza   
 1.2.1.25. to 1.2.1.34. in same file   
1.2.1.28. Orlando East   
 1.2.1.25. to 1.2.1.34. in same file   
1.2.1.29. Saint Wendolins   
 1.2.1.25. to 1.2.1.34. in same file   
1.2.1.30. Tongaland   
 1.2.1.25. to 1.2.1.34. in same file   
1.2.1.31. Waterval/Waterfall   
 1.2.1.25. to 1.2.1.34. in same file   
1.2.1.32. Welverdiend   
 1.2.1.25. to 1.2.1.34. in same file   
1.2.1.33. Winterveld   
 1.2.1.25. to 1.2.1.34. in same file   
1.2.1.34. Woodstock   
 1.2.1.25. to 1.2.1.34. in same file   
1.2.1.35. General 1984-1993 (1 file)   
 Includes material about 'trekkers' from Thornhill, Natal rural freehold communities and Khosis from Makhatini. Also press clippings about government actions to move residents in 'black spots'.   
    
1.2.2. Cases of resettlement   
 Newspaper clippings, magazine articles and non-governmental newsletters and press releases about communities that were forcibly removed. Communities include:   
1.2.2.1. Mogopa 1982-1995 (3 files)   
1.2.2.1.1 Mogopa: And now we have no land TRAC undated 
1.2.2.2. Braklaagte, Leeuwfontein 1989-1993 (2 files)   
1.2.2.3. Potsdam (Blue Rock) 1983-1989 (1 file)   
1.2.2.4. Red Location, Port Elizabeth 1982-1988 (1 file)   
1.2.2.5. Stockenstrom 1984-1988 (1 file)   
1.2.2.6. Baralong/Machaviestad 1984-1992 (1 file)   
 1.2.2.6. to 1.2.2.13. in same file   
1.2.2.7. Loopeng (Slough)   
 1.2.2.6. to 1.2.2.13. in same file   
1.2.2.8. Magogwane   
 1.2.2.6. to 1.2.2.13. in same file   
1.2.2.9. Makhonyeni   
 1.2.2.6. to 1.2.2.13. in same file   
1.2.2.10. Tshikota   
 1.2.2.6. to 1.2.2.13. in same file   
1.2.2.11. Uitvlugt   
 1.2.2.6. to 1.2.2.13. in same file   
1.2.2.12. Rooigrond, Namaqualand, Brits Oukasie, Kleinskool   
 1.2.2.6. to 1.2.2.13. in same file   
1.2.2.13. Valspan   
 1.2.2.6. to 1.2.2.13. in same file   
    
1.2.3. Informal settlers 1990-1996 (3 files)   
 Information about the removal and attempts to remove informal communities, commonly known as squatter camps, across the country including those at Cato Manor, Paarl, Randburg and Gonubie (East London). The clippings also detail the hardships incurred by removals and the lack of infrastructure in the informal settlements.   
    
1.2.4. General   
 Information in general about threats of resettlement and the resettlement of communities to areas designated for black occupation.   
1.2.4.1. Clippings 1974-1990 (20 files)   
 Contains clippings about black spots including Pageview, Winterveld, Driefontein and Thornhill and the conditions for those evicted or forcibly removed. Some clippings refer to the communities listed in 1.2.1. and 1.2.2.   
1.2.4.2. Documents 1980-1986 (2 files)   
 Race Relations articles about resettlements of communities, journal articles and reports about threatened and real relocations and resettlements.   
1.2.4.3. Affidavits 1979 (1 file)   
 Include affidavits from individuals who were forcibly removed from Klipfontein to Glenmore and court material about the Neqonkqwene residents.   
    
1.2.5. Publications 1973-1991 (1 box)   
 Most were published in the 1980s and subjects include the displacement of individual communities such as Roosboom and the Weenen farm evictions. Werksgroep Kairos campaign material focuses on forced removals in South Africa, in co-operation with ten church organisations.   
 Organisations and titles include:   
1.2.5.1 African National Congress:   
 Freiwillige umsiedlungen in Sdafrika, Ein mythos   
1.2.5.2 Africa Publications Trust:   
 A place called Dimbaza, A case study of a rural resettlement township in South Africa   
 Studies in the mass removal of population in South Africa, London, November 1973   
1.2.5.3 Amnesty International:   
 South Africa, imprisonment under the pass laws, London, 1986   
1.2.5.4 Association for Rural Advancement (AFRA):   
 Maputaland, conservation and removals, Special Report no 6, Pietermaritzburg, 1990   
 Land reform and restoration, the Roosboom case, AFRA newsletter 10, February 1991   
 Weenen, labour tenants, farmworkers and evictions, AFRA newsletter 1, 1988   
1.2.5.5 Association for Rural Advancement:   
 A process of dispossession, an overview of relocation in Natal, Cherryl Walker, Special Report no 3, 1982   
 From removals to development. Cornfields, a profile and history of a rural community, Special Report no 7, Pietermaritzburg, 1991. Also see 1.4.3.   
 Waaihoek, Patricia Henderson, University of Natal, 1986   
 The removal of Roosboom, E Mngadi, Special Report no 2   
 Weenen farm evictions, R Clacey, 1989   
1.2.5.6 Black Sash:   
 Removals, A Black Sash Publication/ Removals, Incwadi ye Black Sash, 1983   
 Of squatters, slums, Group Areas and homelessness, New bills before Parliament, August 1988   
 YOU and the new PASS LAWS, 1982   
 You and removals? Wena nokuthuthwa nge ndluzula, 1983   
 YOU and the RIKHOTO CASE, 1983   
1.2.5.7 Le Conseil Sud-Africain des Eglises et la Confrence piscopale des vques catholiques dAfrique australe:   
 Dplacements de populations, Rapport des Eglises sur les dportations de populations en Afrique du Sud, 1984   
1.2.5.8 Evangelisches Missionswerk Hamburg:   
 Zwangsumsiedlungen in Sdafrika, Ein beriicht der kirchen, Hamburg, 1984   
1.2.5.9 Grahamstown Rural Committee:   
 GRC Newsletter, no 4 Summer 1986, Grahamstown   
1.2.5.10 Informationsdienst Sdliches afrika:   
 6 millionen, zwangsumsiedlung in Sdafrika, no 8 December 1984, Bonn, Beuel   
1.2.5.11 National Committee against Removals:   
 Forced removals in many guises, Cape Town, September 1987   
1.2.5.12 South African Institute of Race Relations:   
 The road from Doornkop, A case study of removals and resistance, Deborah James, Johannesburg, 1983   
1.2.5.13 Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit:   
 The economic implications of African resettlement, Charles Simkins, Saldru working paper no 43, Cape Town, 1981   
1.2.5.14 Southern Cape Against Removals (SCAR):   
 Stop Lawaaikamp removals, Plettenberg Bay   
1.2.5.15 University of Witwatersrand:   
 Population removals, DSG/SARS Information Publication 3, 1981   
1.2.5.16 Werkgroep Kairos:   
 Aspekten van apartheid, no 17, Vrijwillige verhuizingen in Zuid-Afrika, Boerenbedrog, mini brochure   
 Deportaties en schijn-naties, Deportaties en gedwongen hervestigingen in Zuid-Afrika gedurende 1983, Utrecht, Zoetermeer,20 December 1983   
 Slegs vir swartes, Deportaties in Zuid-Afrika, Utrecht, 1982   
1.2.5.17 Werkgroep Kairos and others:   
 Deportatiekrant, Utrecht   
1.2.5.18 Working Group Kairos:   
 Broken promises, forced removals in South Africa, Utrecht, June 1985   
1.2.5.19 Barry Streek:   
 Focus on resettlement, South African press clips, August 1981- October 1982, Part II, Removals, a press cuttings supplement, Cape Town   
1.2.5.20 Other:   
1.2.5.20.1 Meran to Limehill, sponsored by Archbishop DE Hurley, Rev L Griffiths and others possibly Black Sash undated 
 Social Review, Issue 24/25, Removals and reforms, Mogopa and Khayelitsha p 18-33, Cape Town, April 1984   
 De stadsreiniging van blank Zuid-Afrika, no 2, 1981   
    
1.2.6. Western Cape   
 The material concerns resettlements and threatened resettlements in Western Cape with the emphasis on the Cape Peninsula.   
1.2.6.1. Clippings   
 Articles from newspaper and magazines about various communities in Western Cape that where threatened with removal or were resettled include:   
1.2.6.1.1. General 1976-1994 (2 files)   
1.2.6.1.2. Noordhoek 1987-1990 (1 file)   
1.2.6.1.3. Bhongolethu, Oudtshoorn 1988 (1 file)   
1.2.6.1.4. Nyanga 1981-1986 (2 files)   
1.2.6.1.5. Guguletu 1984 (1 file)   
1.2.6.1.6. Modderdam 1977 (1 file)   
1.2.6.1.7. Tentedorp, Bloukamp 1988-1989 (1 file)   
1.2.6.1.8. Crossroads 1975-1994 (8 files)   
1.2.6.1.9. Khayelitsha 1983-1991 (3 files)   
1.2.6.1.10. KTC 1983-1988 (2 files)   
    
1.2.6.2. Documents 1981-1987 (28 items)   
 Journal articles about urban population removals, papers by the South African Institute of Race Relations (Western Cape) and articles about individual informal settlements.   
    
1.2.6.3. Publications 1975-1989 (33 items)   
 Consists of material about areas in Western Cape that were resettled or were under threat of resettlement and material of Werksgroep Kairos relating to the organisations campaign against the threatened removal of people from Crossroads, Nyanga and KTC to Khayelitsha. Organisations and titles include:   
 Black Sash:   
 Athlone Advice Office/ Athlone Advies Kantoor, Annual Report October 1979-September 1980, under the auspices of the Black Sash and the SA Institute of Race Relations, Mowbray   
 Black Sash Advice Office Annual Report, Mowbray, 1983   
 Black Sash Advice Office Annual Report, Mowbray, 1984   
 Black Sash Advice Office Annual Report, Mowbray, 1985   
 Black Sash Advice Office, Mowbray, 1986   
 You and Khayelitsha, 1984   
 Centre for Intergroup Studies:   
 Squatter crisis, The background to the low-income housing shortage in the Cape Peninsula, an overview of the squatter phenomenon, early history, legislation and policy, past squatter communities and crisis, and contemporary developments, the broader socio-economic context as well as guidelines for policy and alternative approaches, Graham Howe, Occasional paper no 3, Rondebosch, March 1982.   
 District Six, A brief review of the controversy surrounding the renewal of the area, the zoning in terms of the Group Areas Act, the removal of coloured residents, the siting of the Cape Technikon and the future development of District Six, Occasional paper no 2, Rondebosch, January 1980   
 Department of Economic History, University of Cape Town:   
 Oral history and the reconstruction of District Six, Dr B Nasson   
 Institute of Criminology, University of Cape Town:   
 Elsies River, Don Pinnock   
 National Union of South African Students:   
 Crossroads, Would you make a deal with this man? Rondebosch   
 International University Exchange Fund:   
 The struggle for Crossroads, We will not move, revised and edited by IUEF in 1978   
 Republic of South Africa:   
 Prevention of Illegal Squatting Amendment Bill, as read the first time, 1976   
 South African Institute of Race Relations:   
 Regional topic paper 84/1, 'Khayelitsha, The present situation', Cape Region, George Ellis, Mowbray, December 1984   
 The squatter problem in the Western Cape, some causes and remedies, G Ellis, J Maree, D Hendrie, A Kooy, Johannesburg, 1977   
 Surplus People Project:   
 State urban policies and land struggles in the 1980s, the case of the Western Cape, May 1989   
 Union of South Africa:   
 Act to Provide for the Prevention and Control of Illegal Squatting On Public or Private Land, no 52, 1951   
 Urban Problems Research Unit, University of Cape Town:   
 The concept of Khayelitsha, A planning perspective, Project report, Working paper no 31, D Dewar, V Watson, December 1984   
 Werkgroep Kairos:   
 Crossroads, als het gezinsleven een misdaad is, Dossier, Aldert Schipper, 1978   
 Kaapstad wanhoopt, steun het verzet tegen de deportaties in Zuid-Afrika, Utrecht, February 1984   
 From Crossroads to Khayelitsha, May 1985   
 Geoff Budlender:   
 Squatters, is there a solution? Speech delivered at the Institute of Citizenship, Cape Town, 4 September 1975   
 CA Glover:   
 The illegal housing market in Crossroads   
 David Russell:   
 Crossroads squatter camp, a report on the disruption of African family life, Cape Town, August 1975   
 Prof WH Thomas:   
 The Squatter Problem and the Prevention of Illegal Squatting Amendment Act 1976   
 Other:   
 Atlantis, high class resettlement, 1980   
 Varsity, University of Cape Town Student Newspapers no 9, 'Nyanga homeless deported, protestors hounded', Varsity pull-out supplement p8, 26 August 1981   
 South African Outlook, 'Cape Town, Crossroads', April 1976   
 The war on poor, November 1982   
 Squatters, South African Outlook, Cape Town, August 1975   
 Crossroads/Khayelitsha, Informa, vol XXXII, no 4, p1-5, May 1985, Pretoria   
    
1.3. Land reform   
 The equitable redistribution of land to landless people and land claims by those forcibly removed from their land became a highly contested issue in South Africa prior to and after the 1994 elections. The approaches and policies of the different political parties and the church community about land reform form part of the material. The bulk of the material dates from 1990 onwards.   
 Publications include papers issued by the Land and Agricultural Policy Centre, briefings and summaries from non-governmental organisations and copies of legislation relating to land reform.   
1.3.1. General   
 Consists of material that covers a wide range of land reform issues in South Africa especially in relation to the democratisation of the country.   
1.3.1.1. Clippings   
 Subjects include rural and urban land use and the establishment of stable conditions for development.   
1.3.1.1.1. Rural areas 1990-2000 (9 files)   
 Articles from newspapers and magazines about the debate concerning land reform in rural South Africa, the equitable distribution of land and the removal of the old Land Acts from the statute books.   
1.3.1.1.2. Urban areas 1990-1997 (2 files)   
 Articles about land reform in urban areas in South Africa including the occupation of unused land by informal settlers and District Six land claims.   
    
1.3.1.2. Documents 1990-2000 (4 files)   
 Journal articles about the different approaches to land reform, land use legislation and copies of papers delivered at a Conference on Land Reform and Agricultural Development held in 1990.   
    
1.3.1.3. Publications   
 These include papers and publications about land reform and policy development for agriculture and associated services.   
1.3.1.3.1. Land and Agriculture Policy Centre 1993-1996 (44 items)   
 The LAPC was a non-governmental organisation based at the University of the Witwatersrand and was involved with land reform initiatives, policies and research. Papers include:   
 LAPC working and policy papers:   
 Working paper 24 EC 1, 24 EC 2, 12, 25, 33, Johannesburg, 1995   
 Policy papers, 9, 27, Johannesburg, 1995   
 LAPC Briefings and Review:   
 Briefing 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 13, 14, 1993-1996   
 Review 3, 5, 1994-1995   
 Land Redistribution Options Conference, 12-15 October 1993, Johannesburg:   
 Administrative requirements for rural restructuring, A summary of collected investigations and recommendations, co-ordinated by Susan Lund and Peter Wakelin   
 Agricultural supporting services for land reform, A summary of alternative legal systems for providing access to land, Geoff Budlender   
 Aspects of the South African land market and its role in a rural restructuring programme in South Africa, Johan van Zyl and Herman van Schalkwijk   
 Assessment of rural social safety net requirement, Diana Callear   
 Be-devilling agrarian reform, The impact of present and future legal framework, Heinz Klug   
 Constitutionalism, property rights and agrarian reform, Joseph Thome   
 Criteria for participation in a South African rural restructuring programme, Bongiwe Njobe   
 Farm worker equity model, Mechanism to broaden the ownership base in agriculture, CC McKenzie   
 Financial support services, Kgotoki Nhlapo and Gerhard Coetzee   
 Financing land redistribution in South Africa. Putting theory into practise, land redistribution options, WL Nieuwoudt, TG Scott, CEW Simkins and N Vink   
 Institutions for land redistribution and management, The Zimbabwean experience, Ben Cousins and Steve Robins   
 International experience with market-based measures, including land Texas, for land redistribution, John Strasma   
 Inventory of policy research on land issues, agriculture, natural resource management, and rural development, compiled by David Frost   
 Land distribution options, Nicholas Matabese   
 Land institution and land distribution in Botswana, Botshelo Mathuba   
 Land restoration and a land claims court, Aninka Claasens   
 Non-market approaches to land reform, A review of the international experience, Roger Plant   
 Models of agricultural land use activities and rural livelihoods, Mike de Klerk and Roger van der Brink   
 Options for land reform and rural restructuring in South Africa, a revised version of the paper that was presented at the Land Redistribution Options Conference   
 Proceedings   
 Rural poverty and land redistribution, Some macroeconomic issues, John Sender   
 Setting the agenda, A preliminary critique of the World Banks rural restructuring programme for South Africa, Gavin Williams   
 The use of non-arable land in South Africa, process, problems and possibilities, Working paper 16, RJ Scholes   
 The use of segmented land markets as a redistribution mechanism, Helena Dolny   
    
1.3.1.3.2. Publications 1991-1996 (40 items)   
 These publications cover a wide range of land reform topics such as land reform policies, the White paper on land use and Kairos material about the land problem in South Africa and include:   
 The Border Rural Committee:   
 A preliminary investigation into land-related issues in Zweledinga and some of its neighbouring Hewu settlements in the former Northern Ciskei, Luvuyo Wotshela with contributions from William Beinart, East London, 30 October 1995   
 Bureau for Information:   
 White paper on land reform, A summary and background study, 1991   
 Centre for Applied Legal Studies Documentation Centre:   
 Land reform briefing, Dossier, April 1991   
 Centre for Applied Legal Studies:   
 Who owns South Africa? Aninka Claassens, February 1991   
 The Department of Land Affairs:   
 Draft land policy principles, 1995   
 Development Strategy and Policy Unit of the Urban Foundation:   
 Summary on critical issues, land ownership and conflicting claims, Research, Germany 1937-1991, an executive summary, 6 September 1993   
 Eastern Cape NGO Coalition:   
 Record of proceedings, Annual General Meeting, 29 February-1 March 1996   
 Workshop report, East London, 24-25 January 1996, Congress of South Africa Trade Unions, EC Region   
 Journal of Southern African Studies:   
 Setting the agenda, A critique of the World Bank's rural restructuring, programme for South Africa, Gavin Williams, vol 22, no 1, March 1996   
 Land and Agriculture Policy Centre:   
 Land reform in urban areas and the lessons of the NGO/CBO sector, A report on the activities of the Peoples Dialogue on Homelessness and the South African Homeless Peoples Federation and the implications for the Department of Land Affairs Urban Land Policy, Kevin Allan of Marc Feldman and Associates, June 1996   
 An investigation into the participation of NGOs in the land reform programme and structures in the pilot district of Gauteng, Diagnostic evaluation study, draft report, Ghazala Faizi, Mani Molefe, August 1996   
 Land Redistribution Options Conference, Johannesburg, 12-15 October 1993:   
 Barometer on negotiation, attention, Redistribution of land in progress, vol 5 no 1, February 1993   
 Opening address by the Secretary General of the African National Congress, Mr Cyril Ramaphosa   
 Synthesis of diagnostic evaluation studies on urban land, implications and development of urban land reform policies (within the parameters of the land reform programme of the Department of Land Affairs), Alan Mabin, Witwatersrand University   
 National Land Committee:   
 Briefing on land legislation and reform, 13 November 1991, Johannesburg   
 The National Land Committees response to the Department of Land Affairs Green Paper on Land Reform, Braamfontein   
 Land reform policy proposals, August 1995   
 Report from the Community Land Conference, Sue Wixley, 1994   
 Submission to the Parliamentary Committee on Land Reform Legislation, April 1991   
 The Pilot Land Reform Office:   
 Land reform, the Governments programme and how it is taking shape in Gauteng, Gauteng, March 1996   
 Republic of South Africa:   
 Abolition of Racially Based Land Measures Act, 1991, Act No 108, 1991, Government Gazette, 28 June 1991   
 Less Formal Township Establishment Act, 1991, Government Gazette, 5 July 1995   
 Portfolio Committee Amendments to Upgrading of Land Tenure Rights Amendment Bill, B 102-95, 1995   
 Upgrading Of Land Tenure Rights Act, 1991, Government Gazette, 5 July 1995   
 White paper on land reform, 1991   
 Transvaal Rural Action Committee:   
 Critique of the Mpumalanga land reform pilot programme, May 1996   
 Community submission on Land Reform Green Paper, North-West Province, based on a workshop convened by the Transvaal Land Restoration Committee, compiled by Transvaal Rural Action Committee, April 1996   
 Critique of the Green Paper on Land Reform, Johannesburg, April 1996   
 Critique of the North West land reform pilot programme, May 1996   
 Community submission on Land Reform Green Paper, Mpumalanga Province, workshop convened by the Farmworker Research and Resource Project (FRRP), the Transvaal Land Restoration Committee and the Transvaal Rural Action Committee, April 1996   
 Urban Foundation:   
 Land reform, An analysis and a challenge, 1991   
 Werkgroep Kairos and others:   
 Amandla, Tijdschrift over Zuidelijk Afrika,' Verdreven Zuidafrikanen willen hun grond terug ANC bereid macht te delen', February-March 1993; Landhervorming in Zuid-Afrika, December 1995 Special issue   
 Pinkie A Modisane:   
 Land reform in South Africa, Economic, legal and environmental issues, thesis, Cornwall University, August 1996   
 Other:   
 Rural and regional restructuring in South Africa, Antipode, Special issue edited by John Pickles and Daniel Weiner, vol 23, no 1, January 1991   
 Agenda interview conducted by Adrian Steed and Minister Jacob de Villiers, TV1, Agenda, 7 January 1992, 20h45   
    
1.3.2. Political parties and churches   
 Issues around land reform were taken up by political groupings who organised workshops and made policy proposal. The churches that had been involved in the support of communities affected by the government's land policies examined the use of church land among other initiatives.   
1.3.2.1. Clippings   
 Land reform initiatives by political parties and the churches are reported and debated. There are reports on ANC, PAC, Zimbabwe, Namibia and international comment and involvement.   
1.3.2.1.1. African National Congress 1990-1994 (1 file)   
 Subjects include the ANC Land Commission workshops, ANC policy on land distribution and nationalisation of land.   
1.3.2.1.2. Other political parties and countries 1990-1994 (1 file)   
 Articles cover the policies of the Nationalist Government, the Pan Africanist Congress and Azanian Peoples Liberation Army in respect of land reform. Information about land reform in Zimbabwe and Namibia is also included.   
1.3.2.1.3. Churches 1991-1996 (1 file)   
 Material about the churches' response to land reform, the abolition of racially based land measures and the proposed opening of church-owned land for settlement is described.   
    
1.3.2.2. Documents 1987-1995 (3 files)   
 Copies of ANC reports, discussion documents and policies about land reform, copy of the PAC land policy and theological articles on the land question.   
1.3.2.3. Publications 1992-1997 (8 items)   
 Consist of mostly church related publications such as ownership of land by the church and include:   
 Conference, The effective utilisation of church land:   
 The earth is the Lords, Executive summary and proposed Church land policy framework, a document by the South African Council of Churches and National Land Committee, Technikon South Africa Conference Centre Johannesburg, 4-7 November 1997   
 Economics Committee of Justice and Peace:   
 The land question in South Africa, R Roux   
 Just economics, Bernard F Connor   
 Stellenbosch Economic Project:   
 Church and land, Working documents on the post-apartheid economy no 4, edited by EM Conradie, DE de Villiers and J Kinghorn, 1992   
 Surplus People Project:   
 You don't know whether to prepare for the future or wait for the promises, Some aspects of church land ownership in South Africa, Zohra Dawood and David Mayson, 1993   
 University of Cape Town:   
 Mission settlements in South Africa, Pilot study or the Department of Environmental Affairs, Derek Japha, Vivienne Japha, Lucien Le Grange and Fabio Todeschini, 1992   
 Western Province Council of Churches Publication:   
 Land and the Church, the case of the Dutch Reformed churches, a reader by Mirjam van Donk, no 1, 1994   
 Land issues and challenges to the Church, a reader by Mirjam van Donk, no 2, 1994   
    
1.4. Rural land   
 The uprooting and relocating of blacks to the rural areas created untenable conditions for communities. The lack of work in the rural areas resulted in the availability of cheap labour and resulted in a migrant labour system. This led to the situation where most rural households were headed by women, dependent on income from absentee male members of the family. Many rural people were dependent on inadequate land resources. This resulted in environmental degradation, with over-grazing and erosion.   
 Non-governmental organisations recorded and highlighted the situation of rural communities. After 1994, many rural communities filed claims for the land from which they had been forcibly removed. The material refers to individual communities that returned to their land and to those that filed land claims.   
    
1.4.1. Homelands   
 The material refers to subjects and debates that affected the homelands in general.   
1.4.1.1. Clippings 1982-1994 (6 files)   
 Subjects include the rising number of detentions, impoverishment, lack of employment, economic stagnation and corruption.   
1.4.1.2. Documents 1984-1991 (8 items)   
 Journal articles and conference papers on the establishment of homelands and a copy of an enquiry into development aid for homelands, undertaken in 1991.   
    
1.4.2. Redistribution and transfer of state land   
 The possibility of the use of state land in rural land reform arose in the late 1980s. This material covers the late 1980s and early 1990s.   
1.4.2.1. Clippings 1991-1996 (2 files)   
 Subjects include the KwaZulu Ingonyama Trust land deal dispute and other land negotiations and deals.   
1.4.2.2. Documents 1989-1992 (3 items)   
 Journal articles and legislation provide information about the redistribution of land.   
    
1.4.3. Land claims and return to land   
 With the onset of negotiations towards a democratic South Africa, the demands of those who had been forced off their land for land restitution became a volatile issue. Programmes such as the Return to the Land Campaign and the filing of claims were used to pressure the government to attend to the redistribution of land.   
1.4.3.1. Advisory Committee on Land Allocation   
 Concerns land claims and restitution.   
1.4.3.1.1. Clippings 1991-1996 (2 files)   
 Include articles on the Nationalist and ANC government thinking on land claims and restitution, the occupation of land by communities forced off during apartheid and the establishment of the Advisory Committee on Land Allocation.   
1.4.3.1.2. Documents 1992-1995 (5 items)   
 Include submissions to the Advisory Committee and an annual report of the Committee.   
    
1.4.3.2. Campaign, 'Return to the land'   
 The campaign highlighted the situation of communities who had been forcibly resettled and who wanted to return to their land.   
1.4.3.2.1. Clippings 1985-1994 (2 files)   
 Items include reports about the campaign and communities that wanted to return to their land. These include Goshen near Cathcart in Eastern Cape and Roosboom and Charlestown in KwaZulu Natal.   
1.4.3.2.2. Documents 1990-1994 (10 items)   
 Include documents from the Community Land Conference held in 1994 such as a land charter and draft national demands list regarding the return of land to their rightful owners.   
    
1.4.3.3. Communities returned to their land (1 file)   
 Bound file with newspapers and magazine articles, Transvaal Rural Action Committee and AFRA newsletters, Land Update articles about returning communities. The material includes Kairos support for the land claims of the people of Elandskloof:   
1.4.3.3.1. Bakubung ba Ratho 1991-1994   
1.4.3.3.2. Riemvasmaak 1993-1996   
1.4.3.3.3. Schmidtsdrift 1992-1996   
1.4.3.3.4. Zweledinga 1993-1995   
1.4.3.3.5. Alcockspruit 1992-1994   
1.4.3.3.6. Charlestown 1991-1993   
1.4.3.3.7. Elandskloof 1962-1996   
1.4.3.3.8. Roosboom 1981-1995   
 See also 1.2.2.11.   
1.4.3.3.9. Doornkop 1993-1995   
 See also 1.2.2.11.   
1.4.3.3.10. Thornhill 1990-1994   
 See also 1.2.1.30. and 1.3.1.3.2.   
1.4.3.3.11. Cornfields 1988-1995   
 See also, 1.2.2.11.   
    
1.4.3.4. Communities claiming land (1 file)   
 Bound files with newspaper and magazine articles, AFRA newsletters, Land Update articles about communities claiming land.   
1.4.3.4.1. Barolong di Madiboa 1987-1995   
1.4.3.4.2. amaBhaca 1994   
1.4.3.4.3. Crimen (Criemen) 1991-1995   
1.4.3.4.4. District Six 1995   
1.4.3.4.5. Fingo 1993   
1.4.3.4.6. Khosis and Kosi Bay 1990-1995   
1.4.3.4.7. Maluleke 1994-1996   
1.4.3.4.8. Mandlazini, Mthiyane 1993-1995   
1.4.3.4.9. Matiwanes Kop 1990-1993   
1.4.3.4.10. Mfengu 1991-1995   
1.4.3.4.11. Molweni 1993   
1.4.3.4.12. Nazareth 1993   
1.4.3.4.13. Ndebele 1993   
1.4.3.4.14. Botshabelo (Lebowa) 1993   
1.4.3.4.15. Umbumbula 1995   
1.4.3.4.16. amaHlubi 1992-1995   
1.4.3.4.17. Bathlaping 1995   
1.4.3.4.18. Cwebe undated   
    
1.4.4. Non-governmental organisations (NGOs)   
 A number of NGOs were active in assisting communities in development and housing. Many also publicised the effects of forced removals and lobbied support from the local and international communities   
1.4.4.1. Association for Rural Advancement (AFRA)   
 AFRA was formed in response to the hardships imposed on blacks in rural Natal by the resettlement policies of the Nationalist government. The association's objectives were to monitor and publicise the social and economic hardships and take act to alleviate the situation.   
1.4.4.1.1. Documents 1980-1997 (6 files)   
 Magazines, newsletters, factsheets, memoranda, fieldworker reports, annual reports about communities resettled and the hardships caused by the resettlements. Cases such as Roosboom and Matiwanes Kop are mentioned.   
    
1.4.4.2. Surplus People Project, Western Cape (SPP)   
 The SPP was established in the early 1980s and worked with urban and rural communities on land, development and housing issues. It supported communities in the struggle against resettlements and evictions.   
1.4.4.2.1. Documents 1989-1995 (20 items)   
 Annual reports, newsletters, reports, funding proposals, press releases, occasional papers of the SPP, Western Cape.   
    
1.4.4.3. National Committee Against Removals (NCAR)   
 In 1984, four regional organisations concerned with the resettlements that were taking place in South Africa came together to form a national committee to further their common aims. The four were AFRA, GRC, SSP, W Cape and Transvaal Rural Action Committee.   
1.4.4.3.1. Documents 1984-1988 (22 items)   
 This file consists of press releases, newsletters, reports and newspaper clippings.   
    
1.4.4.4. Grahamstown Rural Committee (GRC)   
 Worked with Eastern Cape communities that were under threat of resettlement. The GRC supported and monitored the communities and publicised the hardships and suffering caused by resettlements. In 1993 the GRC was renamed the Border Rural Committee.   
1.4.4.4.1. Documents 1985-1997 (40 items)   
 Newsletters including those of the Border Rural Committee, reports, press statements.   
    
1.4.4.5. Transvaal Rural Action Committee (TRAC)   
 The Black Sash established TRAC in 1983 to help communities in the then Transvaal that were under threat of resettlement with legal and other assistance.   
1.4.4.5.1. Documents 1983-1995 (56 items)   
 Newsletters, annual reports, briefing documents, publications, press statements.   
    
1.4.5. Rural women   
 Rural women often headed the household and endured the hardships in the homelands and rural areas.   
1.4.5.1. Clippings 1991-1996 (1 file)   
 Include articles about the situation of women in rural South Africa, the lack of power or status rural women hold, the exploitation of women farm workers and the establishment of the Rural Womens Movement (RWM).   
1.4.5.2. Documents 1991-1994 (1 file)   
 Material includes a publication about the Rural Womens Movement and articles concerning women's access to land and other gender and poverty issues.   
    
1.4.6. Legislation for resettlements and land   
 Includes copies of legislation analyses of the impact, clippings and reports. The dates of the Bills are reflected in the headings.   
1.4.6.1. Self-Governing Territories Bill 1988   
 Includes other homelands' legislation.   
1.4.6.1.1. Clippings 1985-1993 (1 file)   
 Include articles about the Black States' Constitution Act and the Development Aid Amendment Bill   
1.4.6.1.2. Documents 1983-1990 (3 files)   
 Include copies of the legislation and articles about the legal aspects of the legislation.   
    
1.4.6.2. Slums Bill 1988   
 The 1988 Slums Bill replaced the 1979 Slums Bill.   
1.4.6.2.1. Clippings 1988 (1 file)   
 Articles about the implications of the Bill and opposition to the Bill.   
1.4.6.2.2. Documents 1988 (3 items)   
 Include copies of relevant legislation and a Black Sash pamphlet about homelessness and the Slums Bill and a response to the provisions of the Bill by Geoff Budlender.   
    
1.4.6.3. Prevention of Illegal Squatting Bill 1988   
1.4.6.3.1. Clippings 1988 (1 file)   
 Include clippings about the position of homeless people with regard to the amendment to the Prevention of Illegal Squatting Bill.   
1.4.6.3.2. Documents 1988-1990 (11 items)   
 Include copies of legislation and analysis and debates about the provisions of the Bill and the impact once it was implemented.   
    
1.4.6.4. Free Settlements Areas Bill 1988   
1.4.6.4.1. Clippings 1988-1990 (1 file)   
 Include articles about the purpose of the Bill, to enact desegregated residential areas.   
1.4.6.4.2. Documents 1988-1989 (7 items)   
 Include copies of the legislation.   
    
1.4.6.5. Group Areas Amendment Act 1988   
1.4.6.5.1. Clippings 1987-1988 (2 files)   
 Include articles about opposition to the Act, as it was seen as an attempt by the government to reverse informal desegregation and to make the implementation of group areas more effective or efficient.   
1.4.6.5.2. Documents 1988 (3 items)   
 Include copies of legislation and memoranda about the Act.   
    
1.4.6.6. Influx control, pass laws and urbanisation   
1.4.6.6.1. Clippings 1982-1988 (3 files)   
 Include articles about the impact of apartheid legislation that made it illegal for blacks to live in most urban areas, pass law arrests and the removal of illegal residents.   
1.4.6.6.2. Documents 1982-1986 (3 files)   
 Include articles, briefings and summaries about attempts by the government to control black urbanisation through legislation such as the The Black (Urban Areas) Consolidation Act of 1952, the Orderly Movement and Settlement of Black Persons Bill and the Bantu Homelands Citizenship Act of 1970.   
    
1.4.6.7. Group Areas Act 1966   
1.4.6.7.1. Clippings 1977-1993 (10 files)   
 Include articles about the injustice of the Act and about communities moved because of the Act, such as Pageview in Johannesburg and District Six.   
1.4.6.7.2. Documents 1987-1990 (8 items)   
 Include a memorandum from the Durban Central Residents Association to the government and an article about the changing patterns of Group Area proclamations.   
1.4.6.7.3. Publications 1983-1992 (3 items)   
 Include:   
 Centre for Intergroup Studies, University of Cape Town:   
 Group Areas, Occasional paper no 7, Rondebosch, 1983   
 Department of Constitutional Development and Planning:   
 Reform and the future, A collection compiled by the Department of Constitutional Development and Planning, August 1988   
 Bridgemohan Maharaj:   
 The Group Areas Act in Durban, thesis, 1992   
    
1.4.6.8. Aliens and Immigration Amendment Act 1984   
1.4.6.8.1. Clippings 1984-1994 (1 file)   
 Include reports about the abuse of the Act by the authorities, the negative effects of the Act on blacks.   
1.4.6.8.2. Documents 1984-1986 (8 items)   
 Include Hansard extracts and a copy of the Aliens and Immigration Laws Amendment Act.   
    
1.4.7. Publications 1973-1994 (30 items)   
 Subjects cover a range of topics relating to rural land, including land distribution, conditions under which farm labourers worked, the resettlement of communities, land tenure systems and a thesis by a Kairos contributor, Mirjam van Donk, about the relationship between the church and land issues. The publications include:   
 Association for Rural Advancement:   
 Drought, relief and rural communities, Special Report no 9, Fred Kockott, Pietermaritzburg, 1993   
 Association for Rural Advancement and Church Agricultural Project:   
 The fields of wrath, cattle impounding in Weenen, Special Report no 8, Fred Kockott, Pietermaritzburg, 1993   
 Black Sash:   
 The Black Sash and you, Cape Town, 1988   
 Removals, A Black Sash Publication / Removals, Incwadi ye Black Sash, Johannesburg, 1983   
 Of squatters, slums, Group Areas and homelessness, New bills before Parliament, August 1988   
 You and Khayelitsha, Johannesburg, 1984   
 You and Removals/Wena Nokuthuthwa Nge Ndluzula (3 copies), Johannesburg, 1983   
 You and the new pass laws, Johannesburg, 1982   
 You and the Rikhoto case, Johannesburg, 1983   
 You and your local authority, Johannesburg, 1988   
 Umhlaba, rural land struggles in the Transvaal in the 80s, Aninka Claassens, Johannesburg, November 1989   
 Centre for African Studies, University of York:   
 The land question in South Africa, A preliminary assessment, Matthew Cobbett, Conference paper, 1986   
 Centre for Research and Documentation, University of Zululand:   
 A preliminary survey of farm workers in the Mtubatuba/Hluhluwe areas, P Daphne, 1982   
 Proceedings of the symposium on 'Organising against underdevelopment', P Daphne, 1984   
 Tribal authority and community organisation, P Daphne, 1982   
 Crisis care, sojourners in our own land, Analysis workshop on Free Settlement and Transit Bill   
 Grahamstown Rural Committee:   
 Land and local government in the Kei and Eastern Cape regions, A bibliography, compiled and edited by Matthew Smith, Patrick Tandy and Rosalie Kingwill, Grahamstown, 1992   
 The Legal Resources Centre:   
 Land, housing and development   
 Rural Advice Centre:   
 A case for rural development, Susan Lund, Johannesburg, 1991   
 Rural Advice Centre updates, Johannesburg, Update July 1988, Update January 1989, Update August 1989   
 Rural Development Initiative:   
 Rural People's Charter, 1991   
 South African Institute of Race Relations:   
 The approaching crisis, land and population in the Transvaal and Natal, DC Grice, Johannesburg, 1973   
 Black Grahamstown, the agony of a community, TRH Davenport, Johannesburg, 1980   
 Transvaal Rural Action Committee :   
 Botho Sechabeng, A feeling of community, A description of forms of tenure in Transvaal rural communities, compiled by Janet Small and Harald Winkler, Johannesburg, 1992   
 University of Stellenbosch, Department of Sociology:   
 Patterns of migration and settlement in rural South Africa, SP Cilliers and LP Raubenheimer, Occasional Paper no 10, May 1986   
 Werkgroep Kairos:   
 Een andere deken, Verslag van een onderzoek naar de omstandigheden van trekarbeider, June 1976, Original title, 'Another blanket', by Dan Matsobane en Toine Eggenhuizen, translation by Lieneke Notenboom-Kronemeijer, 1978   
 Catherine Cross:   
 Informal tenures against the State, Landholding systems in African rural areas   
 TRH Davenport and KS Hunt (editors):   
 The right to the land, documents on Southern African history, Cape Town, 1974   
 Mirjam van Donk:   
 Umhlaba, het land, Doctoral thesis (theology), Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, July 1993   
 Muriel Horrell:   
 The 'Pass Laws', copy   
 Other:   
 Another blanket, Report on an investigation into the migrant situation, June 1976   
 South African Geography and Post-Apartheid Reconstruction, Editorial CM Rogerson, Geojournal, vol 30, no 1, May 1994   
 Kambro, a vision for the Karoo, a report on the conference on poverty and development in the Karoo, Kambro, 1992   
    
1.5. Agriculture and farm labour   
 Whites owned the majority of agricultural land in South Africa. Farm labour conditions were not regulated. Evictions from farms and assaults by farmers of farm workers were seldom reported or prosecuted.   
1.5.1. Agriculture   
1.5.1.1. General   
1.5.1.1.1. Clippings 1971-1997 (4 files)   
 Contain clippings about the state of agriculture, farming subsidies, the agricultural control boards and the Land Bank.   
1.5.1.1.2. Documents 1986-1995 (4 files)   
 Include numerous articles and conference papers about the agricultural sector after apartheid, state regulation and the ownership and control of agriculture.   
    
1.5.1.2. Black farmers   
1.5.1.2.1. Clippings 1988-1996 (1 file)   
 Include a book review of the rise and fall of African peasantry in South Africa by Colin Bundy and clippings about the ability of black farmers to succeed.   
1.5.1.2.2. Documents 1990 (1 item)   
 Paper delivered at the Conference on Land Reform and Agricultural Development held in 1990.   
    
1.5.2. Farm labour   
1.5.2.1. General   
1.5.2.1.1. Clippings 1993 (1 file)   
 Include articles about the effectiveness of the new labour laws to assist farm labourers to improve their living and work conditions.   
1.5.2.1.2. Publications 1980-1994 (20 items)   
 Include material about women farm workers, farm schools and the compilation of policies for farm workers. These include:   
 ANC:   
 Discussion document , On a policy on farm workers, draft, 7 April 1993, Farm workers policy workshop, 8-9 June 1992, Background documents, Centre for Rural Legal Studies, Stellenbosch   
 Journal of African Studies:   
 Relying on kin, Ex-farmworkers' adaptation to life in Grahamstown, CW Manona, vol 50, no 1 and 2, 1990   
 The long-averted clash, farm labour competition in the South African countryside, Jonathan Crush, 1993   
 Western Cape farmers and the beginnings of Afrikaner Nationalism, 1870-1915, Herman Giliomee, vol 14, no 1, October 1987   
 Lawyers for Human Rights:   
 Women on farms, A report on women farmworkers in the Western Cape, Sandra Hill Lanz, Pretoria, 1994   
 University of the Orange Free State:   
 Investigation into elements of the socio-economic conditions of farm workers in the Bloemfontein agricultural district, 1988, EP Beukes and L Botes   
 University of Pretoria:   
 Economic considerations for a policy on farm labour in commercial agriculture, Johan van Zijl and Johan Kirsten, 1990   
 University of Stellenbosch:   
 Farm schools in the western Cape, A different type of bitterness, Paper to be presented to the Conference on Economic Change, Social Conflict and Education in South Africa, Essex, 29-31 March 1989, JF deV Graaf, Department of Sociology, January 1989   
 University of the Witwatersrand, Farmworkers Research and Resource Project:   
 Conditions of farmworkers in South Africa, report for the ILO, March 1992   
 University of York, Centre for Southern African Studies, The Southern African Economy after Apartheid Conference, 29 September2 October 1986, papers:   
 Alternative urbanisation strategies in South Africa, A critical evaluation, Doug Hindson   
 Land ownership and the prospects for land reform in the Transvaal, A preliminary view, Alan Mabin   
 Land use and the community, A case study, Abednego Mvelase, Environment and Development Agency   
 United Nations Centre Against Apartheid, Department of Political and Security, Council Affairs:   
 Apartheid as a collective form of slavery, Exploitation of black farmworkers in South Africa, Notes and documents, November 1980   
 David Cooper:   
 Ownership and control of agriculture in South Africa   
 Adele Gordan:   
 Women, work and education on peri-urban smallholdings, Behind the Barriers, no 18, 1993   
 Other:   
 Stichting Uitgeverij Manifest, Spil, Kritisch tweemaandelijks tijdschrift over landbouw en platteland, aflevering 69-70, June 1988, Ruurlo   
    
1.5.2.2. Labour conditions   
1.5.2.2.1. Clippings 1973-1997 (4 files)   
 Subjects include working conditions on farms, the so-called dop system where wine or spirits was part of labourers' wages, and farm wages policy.   
1.5.2.2.2. Documents 1991-1993 (11 items)   
 Include factsheets, pamphlets and journal articles about farm labour conditions.   
    
1.5.2.3. Legislation   
1.5.2.3.1. General   
1.5.2.3.1.1. Clippings 1983-1996 (3 files)   
 Include clippings about the inclusion of farm workers in the new labour laws.   
1.5.2.3.1.2. Documents 1987-1994 (10 items)   
 Include papers delivered at workshops and journal articles about legislating agriculture.   
    
1.5.2.3.2. Acts   
 Bound file with newspaper and magazine clippings, copies of legislation, press releases, reports and minutes about labour-related Acts and the impact on farm labour as reported by the National Manpower Commission and Trade Unions.   
1.5.2.3.2.1. Wage Act 1992-1993   
1.5.2.3.2.2. Labour Relations Act 1991-1993   
1.5.2.3.2.3. Unemployment Insurance Act 1991   
1.5.2.3.2.4. Basic Conditions of Service Act 1983-1993   
1.5.2.3.2.5. National Manpower Commission and trade unions 1991-1994   
    
1.5.2.4. Farm schools   
1.5.2.4.1. Clippings 1984-1995 (1 file)   
 Subjects include the closure of farm schools and the condition of the schools.   
1.5.2.4.2. Documents 1989-1993 (8 items)   
 Include journal articles and reports about farm schools.   
    
1.5.2.5. Trade unions   
1.5.2.5.1. Clippings 1986-1995 (1 file)   
 Include articles about the organisation and recruitment of farm workers by the Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU) and launch of the South African Agricultural, Plantation and Allied Workers Union (SAAPAWU).   
1.5.2.5.2. Documents 1986-1994 (9 items)   
 Workshop minutes, journal articles and reports about the unionisation of farm workers.   
    
1.5.2.6. Evictions   
1.5.2.6.1. Clippings 1985-1996 (2 files)   
 Include articles about individual evictions of farm labourers across the country and attempts to prevent evictions.   
1.5.2.6.2. Documents 1986-1995 (11 items)   
 Include AFRA reports about evictions at Weenen, Vryheid, Richmond, and Hlobane and affidavits by the Weenen evictees. See also 1.2.2.11.   
    
1.5.2.7. Violence against farm workers   
1.5.2.7.1. Clippings 1988-1998 (1 file)   
 Include articles reporting cases of assaults and deaths of farm workers.   
1.5.2.7.2. Documents 1985-1991 (4 items)   
 Include AFRA reports about farm violence and a copy of the appeal by Mr Rix against his conviction for the murder of a farm labourer in Western Cape.   
    
1.5.2.8. Violence against farmers   
1.5.2.8.1. Clippings 1990-1998 (2 files)   
 Articles report on cases of the murder of white farmers and steps taken by farmers to improve security.   
    
1.5.2.9. Publications 1986-1994 (30 items)   
 Subjects include farm labour conditions on South African wine farms, farm worker projects and reports about land struggles and evictions. Items include:   
 Catholic Institute for International Research:   
 Fruit of the vine, the human cost of South African wine, London, 1989   
 Evangelisches Missionswerk im Bereich der Bundesrepubliek Deutschland und Berlin West e V EMW, Schattendasein:   
 Farmarbeiter in Sdafrika, Hamburg, 1990   
 Farmworkers Support Committee:   
 Die plaaswerker, edition no 3, Stellenbosch   
 Die plaaswerker, vol 1, edition no 2, Stellenbosch   
 Farmworker Task Group of the National Land Committee:   
 Farm dwellers and welfare, Report, Tom Lebert, 1994   
 The Hunger Project:   
 African farmer, the key to Africas future, no 5, November 1990   
 Kairos:   
 Farm workers in South Africa, Knipselmap, 1993   
 Komitee Zuidelijk Afrika:   
 Pluk geen vruchten van apartheid, suggestions for action, Amsterdam   
 Lawyers for Human Rights:   
 Farm workers project, Western Cape rural office, 6 monthly report, January 1992-July 1992   
 National Land Committee :   
 Special focus on farm labourers in South Africa, Landupdate, no 13 May 1992   
 The Project for the Study of Violence:   
 A brutal harvest, the roots and legitimation on farms in South Africa, a report by Lauren Segal, Published by the Black Sash   
 Oxfam:   
 The Kei Road eviction, an activity pack for groups, Wendy Davies   
 Transvaal Rural Action Committee/Black Sash Publication:   
 Umhlaba, rural land struggles in the Transvaal in the 80s, Aninka Claassens, November 1989   
 University of Cape Town:   
 Hey, you must remember were living here on the farms, D Mayson, Centre for African Studies, Western Cape Roots and Realities, 16-18 July 1986   
 Whining farmers, Stellenbosch district c 1870-1910, P Scully, Department of History, Western Cape Roots and Realities, 16-18 July 1986   
 Dit is n stryd op die plase! n Geskiedenis van de organisering van plaaswerkers in die Wes-Kaap, Community Education Resources, 1989   
 University of the Western Cape:   
 Mense op trek na nrens, n studie van swerfarbeiders in die Karoo, AC Redlinghuis, Instituut vir Sosiale Ontwikkeling, Bellville, June 1987   
 World Student Christian Federation Asia, Bangkok:   
 Peasant theology, reflections by the Filipino peasants on their process of social revolution, reported by Charles R Avila   
 TV Bulpin:   
 Stellenbosch and the winelands, 1991   
 Sandra Hill Lanz:   
 Women on farms, A report on women farmworkers in the Western Cape, Pretoria, 1994   
 Ruth Versfeld:   
 Who are our farmers? Pietermaritzburg, 1991   
 Other:   
 A voice from the farms, Poems, Copy version   
 Learning Nation, Special Focus, New Nation, 'Farmworkers in South Africa', 5-11 June 1992, Johannesburg   
 Landworker, Newspaper of rural, agricultural and allied workers, January 1993   
 No kind of life, South Africas farm workers, South African Outlook, May 1992, Cape Town   
 Vastenaktie-Nederland, No 5 mensenrechten, 'Dit land is ons leven, landarbeiders strijden voor hun recht op grond', Amersfoort   
    
1.5.3. Publications 1977-1995 (17 items)   
 Include material that covers a number of topics about agricultural and farm labour such as farmers and politics, labour tenancy and agricultural in a new South Africa. Items include:   
 African Books Collective Ltd:   
 New and recent titles on agriculture, biotechnology and environmental studies   
 New titles for 1995 and complete backlist   
 ABC subject catalogue no 7   
 Evangelisches Missionswerk im Bereich der Bundesrepubliek Deutschland und Berlin West e V (EMW):   
 Schattendasein, farmarbeiter in Sdafrika, Hamburg, 1990   
 Dr Govan Mbeki Fund, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands:   
 South Africa, African rural development, Masiphula M Mbongwa, 1984   
 International Defence and Aid Fund:   
 Masters and serfs, farm labour in South Africa, Rosalynde Ainslie, Nottingham, 1977   
 Kagiso Trust:   
 Botho Sechabeng, A feeling of community, a description of forms of tenure in Transvaal rural communities by the Transvaal Rural Action Committee, compiled by Janet Small and Harald Winkler, Research compiled in 1992 by National Land Committee Affiliates and contract researchers Johannesburg, 1992   
 Republic of South Africa:   
 Agricultural Development Fund Bill / Wetsontwerp Op Die Landbouontwikkelingsfonds, Minister of Agriculture, 1993   
 Rural Foundation 10:   
 Annual report 1991-1992, Stellenbosch   
 Rural Legal Services Project:   
 Your guide to farmworkers and the law, Book 2, Cape Town, 1989   
 South Africa Economic Research and Training project (SAERT):   
 Workshop report, March 1987, 'Research priorities for socio-economic planning in post-apartheid South Africa', 10th13th December 1986, Policy Workshop, Amsterdam   
 South Africa Institute of Race Relations:   
 Betterment, the myth of homeland agriculture, Joanne Yawitch, 1981   
 Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit:   
 Producer co-operatives in the northern region of South Africa, 1978-1987, Anne Collins, Working paper no 77, Cape Town, 1990   
 Suid-Afrikaanse Landbou-Unie:   
 Landbou se bydrae tot n voorspoedige Suid-Afrika, JJ Fourie   
 Transvaal Rural Action Committee:   
 A toehold on the land, labour tenancy in the South Eastern Transvaal May 1988   
 University of Cape Town:   
 Labour, land and livestock in the Western Cape during the eighteenth century, the Khoisan and the colonists, N Penn, Department of History, 1986   
 Farmers and politics, the Stellenbosch District Bank and the rise of the Western Cape Afrikaner establishment, 1880-1910, Professor H Giliomee, Department of Political Studies 1986   
 University of the Western Cape:   
 Persepsies ten opsigte van die toekomstige proses van agrariese en landelike transformasie in die Karoo en Namakwaland, 'n ekonomies-geografiese perspektief, Aubrey C Redlinghuis, August 1991   
 Ernest Harsch:   
 Apartheids great land theft, the struggle for the right to farm in South Africa, New York, January 1986   
    
1.6. Magazines, newsletters and reports   
 Non-governmental organisations formed an important part of the opposition to the apartheid government and were instrumental in highlighting human rights abuses by the government against blacks. The material consists mainly of publications such as annual reports and newsletters of several non-governmental organisations about land issues such as resettlement of communities, the situation of farmer workers and about rural land with reports on the organisations' activities.   
1.6.1. Surplus People Project   
1.6.1.1. Report about forced removals 1983 (5 volumes)   
 Volumes include:   
 The SPP Report, general overview, vol 1   
 The Eastern Cape, vol 2   
 The Western and Northern Cape and Orange Free State, vol 3   
 Natal, vol 4   
 The Transvaal, vol 5   
1.6.1.1.1. Clippings 1983-1988 (1 file)   
 Include references to the release of the above report and updates on vol 3 and 5. Also a review about the book, 'The surplus people'.   
    
1.6.1.2. Seminar reports 1980-1981 (1 file)   
 These cover the work of the SPP and include a report of two field trips to Northern Natal and Western Transvaal.   
    
1.6.2. Farmworkers Research and Resource Project   
1.6.2.1. Press clip summary 1991-1993 (18 items)   
1.6.2.2. Annual reports 1990-1991 (2 items)   
 Include:   
 Annual report 1990   
 Annual report 1991   
1.6.2.3. Miscellaneous 1992 (7 items)   
 Include undated leaflets issued by the Project, reports, list of advice centres and documents and information services offered by the Project.   
1.6.2.4. Mathlasedi 1991-1994 (7 items)   
 A magazine issued by the Farmworkers Research and Resource Project. Volumes include:   
 Vol 10 no 1 Dec 1991   
 Vol 11 no 1 July 1992   
 Vol 12 no 1 July 1993   
 Vol 12 no 2 Dec 1993   
 Vol 13 no 1 May 1994   
 Vol 13 no 2 Aug 1994   
 Vol 13 no 3 1994   
    
1.6.3. National Land Committee   
1.6.3.1. Land Update 1990-1997 (approximately 62 items)   
 A publication of the National Land Committee. Volumes include:   
 Land Update no 1-5, 1990   
 Land Update no 6-10, 1991   
 Land Update no 11-18, 1992   
 Land Update no 19-28, 1993   
 Land Update no 29-35, 1994   
 Land Update no 36-43, 1995   
 Land Update no 44-54, 1996   
 Land Update no 55-63, 1997   
1.6.3.2. Annual reports 1994-1997 (2 items)   
 Include:   
 Annual report 1994-1995   
 Annual report 1996-1997   
    
1.6.4. Environmental and Development Agency   
1.6.4.1. New Ground 1991-1994 (9 items)   
 Issues nos 3, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 3,15   
1.6.4.2. Land and Rural Digest 1999-2001 (12 items)   
 Include:   
 Land and Rural Digest, nos 6, 7, 8, 9, 1999   
 Land and Rural Digest, nos 13, 14, 15, 2000   
 Land and Rural Digest, nos 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 2001   
    
1.6.5. Development Bank of Southern Africa   
1.6.5.1. Development Southern Africa 1993-1997 (23 items)   
 With indexes and publications list. Include:   
 Vol 10, no 1, 2, 3, 4, 1993   
 Vol 11, no 1, 2, 3, 4, 1994   
 Vol 12, no 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 1995   
 Vol 13, no 1, 2, 3, 6, 1996   
 Vol 14, no 1, 1997   
    
2. DETENTIONS AND TRIALS   
 Black resistance to the apartheid government resulted in arrests and trials of many. A small number of white activists supported the anti-apartheid resistance and were the targets of state action. Resistance included campaigns against racist legislation such as the Anti-Pass Law Campaign in 1960. Robert Sobukwe, leader of the Pan-Africanist Congress was arrested that year. The African National Congress formed Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK, the spear of the nation) as the armed wing of the ANC, with Nelson Mandela undergoing military training. The SA Government outlawed black resistance movements and passed legislation in an attempt to curtail the growing resistance.   
    
 Kairos campaigns that dealt with trials and detentions include:   
 1975 Publicity campaign focussing on the SASO/BPC Trial. See 2.1.1.31. and 2.5.5.   
 1976 Publications about detentions in South Africa   
 1977 Campaign against children in detention.   
 1980 Free Nelson Mandela Campaign. See 2.5.1.1.   
 1981 Several demonstrations against detentions and torture in South Africa in co-operation with other anti-apartheid organisations.   
 1982 Campaign against the death penalties for S Mogoerane, M Motaung, J Mosololi, D Moise, J Shabangu, A Tsotsobe. See 2.3.1.5. and 2.3.1.10.   
 1983 Workshop on political prisoners in South Africa. Campaign against death penalty for Benjamin Moloise See 2.3.1.14.   
 1983-1984 Trial of S Mkhatswha in the Ciskei. Kairos sends observer from the International Commission of Jurist to the trial. See 2.1.3.5.   
 1985 15 year Kairos Manifesto in Utrecht with Dr Beyers Naude. Special attention for political prisoners and the UDF.   
 1986 Campaign against children in detention. Distribution of 125000 protest cards addressed to PW Botha. Close co-operation with the Detainees Parents Support Committee. See 2.7.1.   
 1987 Continuation of campaigns against children in detention/violence against children. Dutch translation of the War against Children. Massive support from primary schools in the Netherlands. Campaign in support of the Save the patriots campaign. See 2.3.3.2.   
 1989 Campaign against the death penalty in South Africa with Joan Cameron and Simon Potsane.   
 1996 Truth and Reconciliation Commission research. See 2.2.2. and 2.2.4.1   
    
 Subjects include, trials, detentions, executions, torture, death in detention, banning, conditions, campaigns, amnesty, released prisoners and the Truth and Reconciliation Commission.   
 The material dates from 1970 to 2000. Dates refer to the dates on the material and not the case dates. Some material is undated. Some detainees are named under more than one heading as the original files have been maintained.   
 Access restrictions apply to the TRC database files in 2.2.2.   
 Unpublished material may only be quoted with the permission of the author.   
 The material consists of newspaper clippings, copies of legal case records and state correspondence including conditions for release, letters and reports from NGOs, newsletters, journal articles and government legislation. There are pamphlets, books and bound reports covering most of the subject areas.   
 Consult the headings in 6. Human Rights for more information on security legislation, judicial process and Amnesty International.   
    
2.1. Detentions and trials   
 These files were compiled by Kairos. Personal statements about torture and mistreatment in detention cannot be quoted or referenced without the permission of the person concerned. The material comprises clippings and documents, which in some cases include court documents.   
2.1.1. Kairos case files   
2.1.1.1. Ivy Gcina 1988-1989 (1 file)   
 Clippings and documents.   
2.1.1.2. Ashley Kriel (Forbes) 1988-1989 (1 file)   
 Clippings   
2.1.1.3. Toni Yengeni and others 1988-1991 (1 file)   
 Toni Yengeni, Jenny Schreiner and others. Clippings and documents   
2.1.1.4. Calvin Gilfellan and others 1988 (1 item)   
 Clipping   
2.1.1.5. Veliswa Mhlawuli 1988-1989 (1 file)   
 Clippings   
2.1.1.6. Moses Mayekiso and others 1986-1989 (1 file)   
 Clippings   
2.1.1.7. Alexandra Eight 1987-1988 (1 file)   
 Ashwell Zwane and others. Clippings.   
2.1.1.8. Gordon Webster 1987-1988 (1 file)   
 Clippings   
2.1.1.9. Ismail Ebrahim and others 1987-1991 (1 file)   
 Ismail Ebrahim, Mandla Maseko, Simon Dladla. Clippings   
2.1.1.10. Robert Adam, Mandla Themba 1982 (1 file)   
 Clippings   
2.1.1.11. Jeremy Cronin and others 1976 (1 file)   
 Jeremy Cronin, David Rabkin, Susan Rabkin. Clippings   
2.1.1.12. Thandi Modise and others 1980-1988 (1 file)   
 Clippings   
2.1.1.13. Hanchen Koornhof 1981-1982 (1 file)   
 Clippings   
2.1.1.14. Siphiwo Mthimkulu 1981-1993 (1 file)   
 Clippings   
2.1.1.15. Zubeida Jaffer 1980-1986 (1 file)   
 Clippings   
2.1.1.16. Esther Levitan 1982 (1 file)   
 Clippings. Also see 2.9.3.   
2.1.1.17. Pravin Gordhan 1982 (1 file)   
 Clippings   
2.1.1.18. Thozamile Gqweta and others 1981-1985 (1 file)   
 Thozamile Gqweta, Sam Kikine, Sisa Njikelana .Clippings.   
2.1.1.19. Benjamin Greyling and others 1981-1982 (1 file)   
 Clippings   
2.1.1.20. David Kitson, Steve Kitson 1981-1984 (1 file)   
 Clippings   
2.1.1.21. Jabu Ngwenya 1981-1989 (1 file)   
 Clippings and documents   
2.1.1.22. Marion Sparg 1986 (1 file)   
 Clippings   
2.1.1.23. Sidney Khotso Seatlholo 1982 (1 file)   
 Clippings   
2.1.1.24. Oscar Mpetha 1982-1988 (1 file)   
 Clippings and documents   
2.1.1.25. Carl Niehaus and others 1981-1985 (1 file)   
 Carl Niehaus, Jansie Lourens, Catherine Hunter. Clippings and documents.   
2.1.1.26. Roland Hunter and others 1984 (1 file)   
 Roland Hunter, Derek Hanekom, Patricia Hanekom. Clippings and documents.   
2.1.1.27. Delmas Treason Trial 1986-1989 (1 file)   
 Popo Molefe, and others .Clippings   
2.1.1.28. UDF Treason Trial 1984-1985 (2 files)   
 Mawalal Ramgobin and others. Clippings and documents   
2.1.1.29. The Trial of the 22 1969-1972 (2 files)   
 Winnie Mandela and others Clippings and documents   
2.1.1.30. Patrick Baleka and others 1987 (1 file)   
 Documents, including affidavits   
2.1.1.31. SASO-BPC Trial 1975-1977 (2 files)   
 Material includes articles about the trial, charges and other documents and refers to Kairos involvement including correspondence, telex messages and reports by international observers.   
2.1.1.32. Auret van Heerden 1975-1985 (2 files)   
 Includes affidavits, court documents, correspondence and clippings.   
2.1.1.33. Cedric Mayson 1976-1983 (2 files)   
 Clippings and documents. Two original items are:   
 Biographical notes, dated 7 February 1983   
 Letter from Kairos, signed by Maarten Albersen, 12 February 1983   
2.1.1.34. Barbara Hogan 1982-1990 (1 file)   
 Clippings   
2.1.1.35. Allan Fine 1981-1983 (1 file)   
 Clippings   
2.1.1.36. Pretoria ANC Terror Trial 1977-1978 (1 file)   
 Mosima Sexwale, Naledi Tsiki, Lele Motaung, Simon Mohlanyaneng, Martin Ramokgadi, Jacob Seatlhlolo and others. Clippings.   
2.1.1.37. PAC Trial 1977-1979 (1 file)   
 Clippings. Includes Quarterly Report by International Commission of Jurists, 1979.   
2.1.1.38. David Tobela and others 1981-1983 (1 file)   
 David Tobela, Rafael Khumalo, Raymond Dludlu   
 Clippings   
2.1.1.39. Jenny Schreiner1987-1988 (1 file)   
 Clippings   
2.1.1.40. Susan Westcott and others 1989-1990 (1 file)   
 Susan Westcott, Damian de Lange, Iain Robertson. Clippings   
2.1.1.41. PAC/Qibla trial 1987-1990 (1 file)   
 Yusef Patel and others. Clippings   
2.1.1.42. Zwelakhe Sisulu 1981-1988 (1 file)   
 Clippings   
2.1.1.43. Vula Trial 1990-1991 (1 file)   
 Billy Nair, Mac Maharaj, and others. Clippings   
2.1.1.44. MR Mana 1986 (1 item)   
2.1.1.44.1 Letter from the Minister of Law and Order concerning membership of Fort Beaufort Soccer and Rugby Unions, dated 27 October 1986 Detention in Terms of Public Safety Act. Minister of Law and Order 27-10-1986 
    
2.1.2. Trial cases   
 These are sorted from files of clippings and documents and include right-wing activities as well as those resulting from resistance and police and army actions.   
 Also includes additional names of people who were detained and/or tried, as well as clippings about restrictions on movement, hunger strikes, court actions against the authorities, cases of assault and torture by the police and army, right-wing activities such as vigilantism, and bulletins issued about detainees.   
2.1.2.1. General (30 files)   
2.1.2.2. Journalists 1982-1989 (3 files)   
 Clippings   
2.1.2.3. Students and youth 1978-1991 (10 files)   
 Clippings   
2.1.2.4. Church and clergy 1978-1991 (4 files)   
 Clippings   
    
2.1.3. Detentions of clerics   
 These are Kairos files of documents and clippings about religious leaders involved in anti-apartheid activities.   
2.1.3.1. Francois Bill 1987-1988 (4 items)   
 Clippings and documents   
2.1.3.2. Allan Boesak 1984-1985 (4 items)   
 Clippings and documents   
2.1.3.3. Dennis Hurley 1984-1985 (1 file)   
 Clippings and documents. Also see 10.1.2.1. Hamukwaya Series.   
2.1.3.4. Simon Farisani 1982-1987 (1 file)   
 Clippings and documents   
2.1.3.5. Smangaliso Mkhatshwa 1977-1988 (2 files)   
 A Ciskei detention, the material includes information from an international observer, and includes press releases, correspondence about a campaign supporting his release, 1986.   
2.1.3.6. Sister Bernard Ncube 1982-1988 (1 file)   
 Clippings and documents   
2.1.3.7. Arnold Stofile 1986-1988 (1 file)   
 Clippings   
    
2.1.4. Documents   
 This material documents covers a range of subjects relating to detention and trial and in some cases mention particular detainees.   
2.1.4.1. General 1976-1997 (4 files)   
 Include:   
 Copy of unpublished article, Black consciousness on trial: BPC and SASO, 1974-6, Michael Lobban, Oxford, undated   
 Copy of untitled document, contains details of the application of security legislation in detentions, mentions individual cases, undated   
 Newsletters, including Race Relations News, December 1997 with articles about 1976 trials relating to disturbances   
 Hansard extracts   
 Telexes and press releases   
 ANC letter about Pietermaritzburg Treason Trial, 3 October 1979   
 Detainee profiles   
2.1.4.2. Journalists and media workers 1985-1988 (1 file)   
 For further information about the media see 6.4. in Human Rights and 10.5. in Namibia.   
 Include:   
 Letter from Kairos to Nederlandse Vereniging van Journalisten, 15 March 1985   
 Human rights alert about the press under the state of emergency, Lawyers Committee for Human Rights, 1 May 1987   
 Reports and press releases from the Committee to Protect Journalists   
2.1.4.3. Youth and students 1987 (2 items)   
 Includes a letter from the University of Fort Hare to Amnesty International, 17 February 1987 and an extract of a letter written by Eric Molobi, while in detention in 1987. For further information on youth and children in detention see 8.2.3. in Children.   
2.1.4.4. Church and clergy 1982-1987 (1 file)   
 Include:   
 Letter from SA Council of Churches to Kairos, original, signed, 18 November 1987 with attachments about the case, State v Rev AM Maja, concerns possession of church documents, seen as subversive, includes a memorandum from Nicholas Haysom   
 Support letters, telexes, magazine articles and clippings   
2.1.4.5. Trade unions 1982-1987 (1 file)   
 Include:   
 Letter from Kairos about detainees with clipping   
 Press releases, news letters, clippings and briefings   
 Amnesty International reports on detentions and appeal cases concerning trade unionists   
    
2.1.4.6. Affidavits and reports 1985-1986 (4 files)   
 This material has been arranged in two sections to maintain their original order. Access to this material is with permission of the individuals concerned.   
2.1.4.6.1. Affidavits 1986-1987 (3 files)   
 This material contains affidavits, medical reports and reports on police actions in the arrest and detention of individuals. Other police actions include the deaths of people in their homes and in public areas through shootings and assaults. Areas include Cradock, Cape Town (Athlone, Belville South, Kraaifontein), Graaff-Reinet, Middelburg (Cape), De Aar. Events include mass protest marches and police campaigns.   
 The first file contains reports with attached affidavits, a copy of a handwritten letter. Most of the reports are for Eastern Cape including Grahamstown, Fort Beaufort, Port Alfred area. These are arranged in order of date.   
 The second and third files contain affidavits, some with medical reports.   
2.1.4.6.2. Affidavits 1977-1985 (1 file)   
 This file contains letters and affidavits. An attorneys letter referring to abuse of police powers is attached to one set of affidavits. A copy of a letter dated 13 February 1977 refers to warders setting dogs on prisoners.   
    
2.1.5. Clippings   
 These contain reports of arrests and detentions for a wide range of offences. Some were for the possession of items with banned organisation names on them. Other offences were the possession of banned literature, sabotage, murder, supporting a banned organisation or protesting the governments apartheid policies.   
2.1.5.1. General 1975-1992 (16 files)   
2.1.5.2. Journalists 1982-1991 (1 file)   
2.1.5.3. Students and youth 1981-1989 (2 files)   
2.1.5.4. Trade unions 1981-1991 (1 file)   
    
2.1.6. Reports and documents 1982-1987 (1 file)   
 See also 2.7. for additional reports and lists.   
 Include:   
 DPSC, DESCOM, JODAC, Black Sash and others:   
 Preventative detention, Tools of repression, brochure, Johannesburg, 1984   
 Ev Luth Missionswerk in Niedersachsen (ELM):   
 Mit Gott im kerker, brochure, Tshenuwani Simon Farisani, in German, 1983   
 Lawyers Committee for Civil Rights under Law:   
 The United Democratic Front treason trial, document, briefing paper, State versus Mawalal Ramgobin and 15 others, Southern Africa Project, Washington DC, 1995   
 Raymond Suttner Support Group:   
 Raymond Suttner, South African emergency detainee, (brochure), detained 12 June 1986, still in detention April 1988   
 University of Natal, Detention and Security Legislation Conference:   
 The psychological effects of detention, GA Tyson   
 Mark Orkin and Johan Degenaar:   
 Exhibit EJ, evidence in mitigation of sentence in the case of State versus Maseko, Dladla and Ebrahim, case, 1990   
 Barry Streek:   
 Free all political prisoners, Repression focus, Part one, detentions, South African press clips, Houtbay 1982   
    
2.2. Torture and deaths in detention   
 This section contains material about detainees that were tortured and/or died in detention. These consist mostly of press clippings with few documents.   
2.2.1. Kairos case files   
 These are Kairos files for individual cases. They consist of mostly press clippings, but some files contain documents such as inquest reports. Clippings  
2.2.1.1. Linda Dlodlo 1982 (1 file)   
2.2.1.2. Simon Mndawe 1983-1985 (1 file)   
2.2.1.3. Andries Raditsela 1985-1986 (1 file)   
2.2.1.4. Paris Malatsi 1983-1984 (1 file)   
 Paris Malatsi/ Pares Molefe Malatje   
2.2.1.5. Lungisile Bako 1986 (2 items)   
2.2.1.6. Nobandla Elda Bani 1987 (2 items)   
2.2.1.7. Alfred Makaleng 1988 (1 file)   
2.2.1.8. Bonakele Njalo 1984 (4 items)   
2.2.1.9. Ernest Dipale 1982 (1 file)   
2.2.1.10. Mbulelo Boltini 1986 (3 items)   
2.2.1.11. Peter Nchabaleng 1986-1987 (1 file)   
2.2.1.12. Samuel Tshikhudo 1984 (1 file)   
2.2.1.13. Clayton Sizwe Sithole 1990 (1 item)   
2.2.1.14. Sipho Mutsi 1985-1986 (1 file)   
2.2.1.15. Jacob Tlale 1976 (4 items)   
2.2.1.16. Paulus Ncane 1978 (4 items)   
2.2.1.17. Temba Manana 1983-1984 (7 items)   
2.2.1.18. Ephraim Mthethwa 1984 (1 file)   
2.2.1.19. Mbuyiselo Mbotya 1985 (4 items)   
2.2.1.20. Simon Marule 1986-1987 (5 items)   
2.2.1.21. Lawrence Nzdanga 1976-1977 (4 items)   
2.2.1.22. Xoluso Johannes Jacob 1986 (8 items)   
2.2.1.23. Mlunga Sibisi 1983 (3 items)   
2.2.1.24. Bethuel Maphumulo 1993 (4 items)   
2.2.1.25. Arthur Xakaza 1977 (1 item)   
2.2.1.26. Abraham Louw 1987 (1 item)   
2.2.1.27. Bhekindoda Ntumbela 1977 (1 item)   
2.2.1.28. Johannes Radebe 1986 (1 item)   
2.2.1.29. Moonsammy Pillay 1977 (2 items)   
2.2.1.30. Thalo Mosala 1976 (1 item)   
2.2.1.31. Chris Link and Eric James 1988 (1 item)   
2.2.1.32. Ephraim Mbanjiwa 1984 (1 item)   
2.2.1.33. Klaas Mentoor 1987 (1 item)   
2.2.1.34. Crifford Mngadi 1982 (1 item)   
2.2.1.35. Moses Mope 1985 (1 item)   
2.2.1.36. G Mtungwana 1985 (1 item)   
2.2.1.37. Elizabeth Mpe 1982 (1 item)   
2.2.1.38. Afrika Neels 1985 (1 item)   
2.2.1.39. Joel Phoshoko 1986 (1 item)   
2.2.1.40. Ngoako Ramalepe 1985 (1 item)   
2.2.1.41. Mbuyiseli Songelwa 1986 (1 item)   
2.2.1.42. Johannes Spogter 1985 (2 items)   
2.2.1.43. Mission Sibambo 1986 (2 items)   
2.2.1.44. Fred Daniel Adams 1984 (1 item)   
2.2.1.45. Melitafa Breakfast 1983 (1 item)   
2.2.1.46. Masenyani Mkansi 1983 (1 item)   
2.2.1.47. Mxolisi Sipele 1984 (1 item)   
2.2.1.48. Asaf Thabethe 1985 (1 item)   
2.2.1.49. Thabo Tsholo 1983 (1 item)   
2.2.1.50. Abel Ngwenya 1987 (1 item)   
2.2.1.51. Sonnyboy Mokoena 1985 (1 item)   
2.2.1.52. Josephine Moshobane 1986 (1 item)   
2.2.1.53. Sipho Sibeko 1986 (1 item)   
2.2.1.54. Goolam Bismilla 1986 (2 items)   
2.2.1.55. Caleb Mayekiso and others 1982 (1 item)   
 Caleb Mayekiso, Lungili Tabalaza, Saul Ndzumo, Sifundile Matalasi, Bonaventure Sipho Malaza   
2.2.1.56. Lucas Tlhotlhomisang 1990 (1 item)   
2.2.1.57. Mandlakayise Mdima 1991 (1 item)   
2.2.1.58. Johan Hufke 1990 (1 item)   
2.2.1.59. Michael Walker 1991 (1 item)   
2.2.1.60. Donald Madisha 1990-1991 (3 items)   
2.2.1.61. Motseki Molaoa 1991 (1 item)   
2.2.1.62. Uys Ngmane 1991 (1 item)   
2.2.1.63. Frederick Cardinal 1991 (1 item)   
2.2.1.64. Simon Sieema 1992 (1 item)   
2.2.1.65. Shadrack Modiakgotla 1992 (1 item)   
2.2.1.66. Benedict Mashoke 1987 (2 items)   
2.2.1.67. Victor Manuel 1994 (1 item)   
2.2.1.68. Victor Kheswa 1993 (2 items)   
2.2.1.69. Thomas Majola 1994 (1 item)   
2.2.1.70. Walter Robertson 1992 (1 item)   
2.2.1.71. Madala Kgaeepi 1994 (1 item)   
2.2.1.72. Themba Mbhele 1980 (2 items)   
2.2.1.73. Solomon Molopyane 1981 (2 items)   
2.2.1.74. Paul Ramphomane 1981 (1 item)   
2.2.1.75. Frank Themba Kambule 1981 (1 item)   
2.2.1.76. Jackie Zungwane 1976 (1 item)   
2.2.1.77. Amos Khoza 1988 (1 item)   
2.2.1.78. James Lenkoe (1 item)   
 Undated material.   
2.2.1.79. Johannes Mashiloanex 1986 (1 item)   
    
2.2.1.80. Steve Biko 1976-1997 (12 files)   
 Consist of eleven files of clippings dated 1976-1979 and one file containing clippings about the film Cry Freedom, with documents that include:   
2.2.1.80.1 Newspaper clipping (original) from the Rand Daily Mail Donald Woods 27-08-1976 
2-2-2-80-2 Newspaper clipping (original) from The World The World 13-09-1977 
 Articles and tributes   
 An Anti-Apartheid Health Committee pamphlet reporting on the doctors that examined Biko and calling for the isolation of the South African medical profession   
 Articles on ethics and medical negligence   
2.2.1.81. Neil Aggett 1982-1983 (5 files)   
 Items include:   
 Article about the Aggett case and security legislation by George Bizos   
 Tributes, statements and press releases   
 Inquest information   
    
2.2.2. Kairos TRC database of torture and deaths   
 These cases come from the Kairos database with information about torture and/or death in detention and supported the work Kairos carried out for the research department of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. The database was not finished and sources of different files may not be complete. The numbering reflects the case file numbers allocated by Kairos. Each file has a summary sheet of information compiled by the Kairos researchers. Some reports are filed together. Access restrictions apply to this database.   
2.2.2.1. Pindiso Zimambane, Ncikwa Nagi Vimba (1 file)   
 Undated material   
2.2.2.2. Mtahayeni Cuthsela   
 Tortured. 2.2.2.1. and 2.2.2.2. in one file.   
2.2.2.3. Joseph Mdluli 1976-1979 (1 file)   
 Clippings. Death in detention.   
2.2.2.4. Lungile Tabalaza 1978 (1 file)   
 Clippings. Death in detention.   
2.2.2.5. Henry 'Valdez' Kweyama 1978 (1 file)   
 Clippings. Missing person.   
2.2.2.6. Lilian Keagile 1982-1983 (1 file)   
 Clippings. Tortured.   
2.2.2.7. Lunga Statement Tywantse 1978 (1 file)   
 Clippings. Died in hospital while in detention.   
2.2.2.8. Tshishiwa Muofhe 1981-1983 (1 file)   
 Clippings. Death in detention.   
2.2.2.9. Smyley Barbara Mkame 1986 (1 file)   
 Assaulted. Clippings.   
2.2.2.10. Yunis Shaik 1985 (1 file)   
 Clippings. Tortured.   
2.2.2.11. Rieaz Shaik   
 Tortured. 2.2.2.10. and 2.2.2.11. in one file.   
2.2.2.12. Billy Nair 1985 (1 file)   
 Assaulted. Includes affidavit.   
2.2.2.13. Eugene Victor Dlamini 1985 (1 file)   
 Tortured.   
2.2.2.14. Shirish Soni 1985 (1 file)   
 Tortured, beaten. Includes affidavit.   
2.2.2.15. Sibonelo Trustworth Ngubane 1985 (1 file)   
 Beaten. Includes affidavit.   
2.2.2.16. William Lehaiwa 1978-1991 (1 file)   
 Tortured. Above date range covers files 2.2.2.16. to 2.2.2.19.   
2.2.2.17. Patric Huma   
 Tortured. Clippings. 2.2.2.16. to 2.2.2.19 in one file.   
2.2.2.18. Mbuyiselo Nixon Phiri   
 Died in detention. Clippings. 2.2.2.16. to 2.2.2.19 in one file.   
2.2.2.19. Tando Dyantyi, Boyce Soci   
 Clippings. Tortured. 2.2.2.16. to 2.2.2.19 in one file.   
2.2.2.20. Zukisani Sodladla 1985 (1 file)   
 Assaulted. 2.2.2.20. to 2.2.2.27. are in one file; all were assaulted.   
2.2.2.21. Tateyi Skwentu 1985   
 Assaulted. 2.2.2.20. to 2.2.2.27. are in one file; all were assaulted.   
2.2.2.22. Pinky Skwentu 1985   
 Assaulted. 2.2.2.20. to 2.2.2.27. are in one file; all were assaulted.   
2.2.2.23. Boyce Gojela 1985   
 Assaulted. 2.2.2.20. to 2.2.2.27. are in one file; all were assaulted.   
2.2.2.24. Sithembiso Papu 1985   
 Assaulted. 2.2.2.20. to 2.2.2.27. are in one file; all were assaulted.   
2.2.2.25. Kelele Lamani 1985   
 Assaulted. 2.2.2.20. to 2.2.2.27. are in one file; all were assaulted.   
2.2.2.26. Andrew Ntshakaza 1985   
 Assaulted. 2.2.2.20. to 2.2.2.27. are in one file; all were assaulted.   
2.2.2.27. Xolisile Toyi 1985   
 Assaulted. 2.2.2.20. to 2.2.2.27. are in one file; all were assaulted.   
2.2.2.28. Hoosen Haffejee 1977-1978 (1 file)   
 Death in detention. Clippings.   
2.2.2.29. Karel Mokhalahali 1988 (1 file)   
 Assaulted. Affidavit included.   
2.2.2.30. Mtutuzeli Nqam   
 Items 2.2.2.30 to 2.2.2.51. are in one file; undated extracts from Kairos database.   
2.2.2.31. Archie Velile Mkele   
 Items 2.2.2.30 to 2.2.2.51. are in one file; undated extracts from Kairos database.   
2.2.2.32. Ernest Nzwanana   
 Items 2.2.2.30 to 2.2.2.51. are in one file; undated extracts from Kairos database.   
2.2.2.33. Petrus Mgwaxela   
 Items 2.2.2.30 to 2.2.2.51. are in one file; undated extracts from Kairos database.   
2.2.2.34. Kiddy Xala   
 Items 2.2.2.30 to 2.2.2.51. are in one file; undated extracts from Kairos database.   
2.2.2.35. Thembinkosi Maulive Xala   
 Items 2.2.2.30 to 2.2.2.51. are in one file; undated extracts from Kairos database.   
2.2.2.36. Mzwanele Philip Xala   
 Items 2.2.2.30 to 2.2.2.51. are in one file; undated extracts from Kairos database.   
2.2.2.37. Mphumezi Mayinje   
 Items 2.2.2.30 to 2.2.2.51. are in one file; undated extracts from Kairos database.   
2.2.2.38. Christopher Monwabisi Mayinje   
 Items 2.2.2.30 to 2.2.2.51. are in one file; undated extracts from Kairos database.   
2.2.2.39. Patrick Tlhaleroe   
 Items 2.2.2.30 to 2.2.2.51. are in one file; undated extracts from Kairos database.   
2.2.2.40. Zolani Mamatu   
 Items 2.2.2.30 to 2.2.2.51. are in one file; undated extracts from Kairos database.   
2.2.2.41. Zandisile Faltein   
 Items 2.2.2.30 to 2.2.2.51. are in one file; undated extracts from Kairos database.   
2.2.2.42. Sidney Mhlaba   
 Items 2.2.2.30 to 2.2.2.51. are in one file; undated extracts from Kairos database.   
2.2.2.43. Velile William John   
 Items 2.2.2.30 to 2.2.2.51. are in one file; undated extracts from Kairos database.   
2.2.2.44. Vuyani Lukwe   
 Items 2.2.2.30 to 2.2.2.51. are in one file; undated extracts from Kairos database.   
2.2.2.45. Vuyo Menzeni   
 Items 2.2.2.30 to 2.2.2.51. are in one file; undated extracts from Kairos database.   
2.2.2.46. Mbuyiseli Zono   
 Items 2.2.2.30 to 2.2.2.51. are in one file; undated extracts from Kairos database.   
2.2.2.47. Mvuselelo Myoleli   
 Items 2.2.2.30 to 2.2.2.51. are in one file; undated extracts from Kairos database.   
2.2.2.48. Mongesi Jawa   
 Items 2.2.2.30 to 2.2.2.51. are in one file; undated extracts from Kairos database.   
2.2.2.49. Mimi Ghaxa   
 Items 2.2.2.30 to 2.2.2.51. are in one file; undated extracts from Kairos database.   
2.2.2.50. Sonwabo Numrod Bonani   
 Items 2.2.2.30 to 2.2.2.51. are in one file; undated extracts from Kairos database.   
2.2.2.51. Vuyisa Booi   
 Items 2.2.2.30 to 2.2.2.51. are in one file; undated extracts from Kairos database.   
2.2.2.52. Matthews Mabelane/Mabilane 1977 (1 file)   
 Death in detention. Items 2.2.2.52. to 2.2.2.55. are in one file.   
2.2.2.53. Cancelled Kairos database file   
 No name listed.   
2.2.2.54. Abdullah Haron (Imam) 1970-1978   
 Death in detention. Clippings.   
2.2.2.55. Lucky Makompo Kutumela 1986-1987   
 Death in detention. Clippings.   
2.2.2.56. Yazeed Baker 1985 (1 file)   
 Items 2.2.2.56. to 2.2.2.60. all relate to one incident in 1985 and are in one file. Statements included with database printout.   
2.2.2.57. Colleen Fick 1985   
 and are in one file. Statements included with database printout.   
2.2.2.58. Chantel Fick 1985   
 Items 2.2.2.56. to 2.2.2.60. all relate to one incident in 1985 and are in one file. Statements included with database printout.   
2.2.2.59. Mansoor Mollagee 1985   
 Items 2.2.2.56. to 2.2.2.60. all relate to one incident in 1985 and are in one file. Statements included with database printout.   
2.2.2.60. Clement John Meyer 1985   
 Items 2.2.2.56. to 2.2.2.60. all relate to one incident in 1985 and are in one file. Statements included with database printout.   
2.2.2.61. Cheryl Phillips 1985 (1 file)   
 Tortured. Includes affidavit.   
2.2.2.62. Nontsikelelo Miriam Kalolo 1987 (1 file)   
 Tortured. Affidavit.   
2.2.2.63. Kolibele Sibongo 1986 (1 file)   
 Tortured. Affidavit.   
2.2.2.64. Abdulhia Jassat 1964 (1 item)   
 Tortured.   
2.2.2.65. Colben Vuyani Mngaza 1965 (1 item)   
 Assaulted.   
2.2.2.66. Bernard Huna 1966 (1 file)   
 Tortured.   
2.2.2.67. Andrew Mashaba and others 1967 (1 file)   
 Assaulted.   
2.2.2.68. Nicholaas Mapipa   
 Items 2.2.2.68 to 2.2.2.75. are in one file and consist of undated database extracts.   
2.2.2.69. Allan Keith Brooks   
 Items 2.2.2.68 to 2.2.2.75. are in one file and consist of undated database extracts.   
2.2.2.70. Paul Henry Trewhela   
 Items 2.2.2.68 to 2.2.2.75. are in one file and consist of undated database extracts.   
2.2.2.71. Constantinos Gazides   
 Items 2.2.2.68 to 2.2.2.75. are in one file and consist of undated database extracts.   
2.2.2.72. Ann Drummond Nicholson   
 Items 2.2.2.68 to 2.2.2.75. are in one file and consist of undated database extracts.   
2.2.2.73. Norman Levy   
 Items 2.2.2.68 to 2.2.2.75. are in one file and consist of undated database extracts.   
2.2.2.74. Stephanie Kemp   
 Items 2.2.2.68 to 2.2.2.75. are in one file and consist of undated database extracts.   
2.2.2.75. Nichodimus Kgoathe   
 Death in detention. Items 2.2.2.68 to 2.2.2.75. are in one file and consist of undated database extracts.   
2.2.2.76. Amhed Essop Timol 1971-1972 (1 file)   
 Death in detention. Clippings.   
2.2.2.77. Mohammed Salim Essop 1972-1973 (1 file)   
 Assaulted.   
2.2.2.78. Solomon Mosutwa Rakgatsi 1978 (1 file)   
 Tortured.   
2.2.2.79. Name unknown (minor) 1978 (1 file)   
 Sentenced to 5 years for terrorism.   
2.2.2.80. Ellen Nyamende, Ronnie Lapshe 1978 (1 file)   
 Assaulted.   
2.2.2.81. Desmond Madlavu and others 1987 (1 file)   
 Desmond Mzukusi Madlavu, Mayimbo Rixana, Nkwenkwe M Madela. Assaulted.   
2.2.2.82. Upington Kalako and another 1979 (1 file)   
 Upington Mzwiamadoda Kalako, Eric Bangani Ngeleza. Assault   
2.2.2.83. Andrew Roy Mbele 1977 (1 file)   
 Tortured.   
2.2.2.84. William Shimong/Tshimong 1977 (1 file)   
 Threatened with detention.   
2.2.2.85. Amos Nkosiyakhe Masondo 1976 (1 file)   
 Assaulted.   
2.2.2.86. Anthony Holiday 1976 (1 file)   
 Assaulted.   
2.2.2.87. Joseph Nduli and others 1976 (1 file)   
 Tortured.   
2.2.2.88. Barney Ngakane 1976 (1 file)   
 Tortured.   
2.2.2.89. Nanoath Ntshuntsha 1977 (1 file)   
 Died in detention.   
2.2.2.90. Edward Mzolo 1976 (1 file)   
 Death in detention.   
2.2.2.91. Mapetla Frank Mohapi 1976 (1 file)   
 Death in detention.   
2.2.2.92. George Botha 1976 (1 file)   
 Death in detention.   
2.2.2.93. Luke Mazwembe 1976-1977 (1 file)   
 Death in detention.   
2.2.2.94. Wellington Tshazibane 1976 (1 file)   
 Death in detention.   
2.2.2.95. Elmon Malele 1977 (1 file)   
 Death in detention.   
2.2.2.96. Aaron Khoza 1977 (1 file)   
 Death in detention.   
2.2.2.97. Samuel Malinga 1977 (1 file)   
 Death in detention.   
2.2.2.98. Bonaventure Sipho Malaza 1977 (1 file)   
 Death in detention.   
2.2.2.99. Elijah Loza 1977 (1 file)   
 Death in detention.   
2.2.2.100. Phakamile Harry Mabija 1977 (1 file)   
 Death in detention.   
2.2.2.101. Mavis Magubane 1978 (1 file)   
 Assaulted.   
2.2.2.102. Samuel Malepane 1977-1978 (1 file)   
 Tortured.   
2.2.2.103. Bayempin Mzizi 1978 (1 file)   
 Death in detention.   
2.2.2.104. Thembani Phantsi 1977 (1 file)   
 Solitary confinement.   
2.2.2.105. Unnamed State witness (youth) 1978 (1 file)   
 Tortured by police. Appeared as state witness in a terrorism trial held in Grahamstown.   
    
2.2.3. Interdicts 1985-1987 (6 items)   
 Court documents with applications for interdicts against government ministers and officials in cases of mistreatment of detainees. These include statements from Dr Wendy Orr.   
    
2.2.4. Reports   
 These include reports from Kairos, reports and published letters from the United Nations, the International Association of Democratic Lawyers, Amnesty International and other reports on torture and deaths in detention. Material relates to investigations, campaigns and personal testimony.   
2.2.4.1. Kairos TRC reports 1997 (4 items)   
 Kairos reports for the TRC. The report on TJ Swanepoel has additional material.   
 Include:   
2.2.4.1.1 Torture of detainees in South Africa 1960-1970, Final report for the TRC, p45, November 1997 KAIROS Nov-97 
 Torture in South Africa, Cases from the 1960s, March 1997   
 Torture in South Africa, Theunis Jacobus Swanepoel, February 1997   
 Torture of detainees in South Africa, Summary of the final report, November 1997   
2.2.4.2. United Nations 1964-1985 (5 items)   
 Reports and letters published by the UN. These include:   
 Statement by the University Exchange Fund, published 10 February 1977   
 Letter from the PAC, dated 1964, published 17 January 1964   
 Affidavits by prisoners in South Africa concerning ill-treatment in prison, letter dated 23-11-64 from Mrs. Ruth First, London, UN Special Committee on the policies of Apartheid of the Government. of the Republic of South Africa , UN GA document, New York, 25 December 1964 (A/AC.115/L.106)   
2.2.4.3. International Association of Democratic Lawyers 1978 (3 items)   
 Concern the fact-finding mission to Southern Africa in 1978.   
2.2.4.4. Amnesty International 1986 (3 items)   
 Reports on torture of trade unionists, the redetention of tortured prisoners and the ill treatment of children in detention.   
2.2.4.5. Torture 1982-1986 (1 file)   
 Lists and articles about torture of detainees. This file includes Hansard extracts.   
 Include:   
2.2.4.5.1 Spotlight on detentions in South Africa The Press Trust of South Africa 8th Mar 1984 
2.2.4.5.2 DTT: A new development Detention Treatment Team, ADAC undated 
2.2.4.5.3 Urgent Action: South Africa: Mbulelo Goniwe Amnesty International 3rd April 1986 
2.2.4.5.4 File on torture Namibia No 6 February 1985 Amnesty International Feb-85 
 Report on student activist White Mohapi, 1984   
 Personal testimony by Gloria Mtungwa to the International Conference in support of the struggle of the women in South Africa and Namibia, 17-19 May 1982   
 Campaign material for the release of Veliswa Mhlawuli, held in solitary confinement, detained 5 October 1988   
 Memo from the American Committee on Africa about torture in detention, 22 June 1982   
2.2.4.6. Deaths in detention 1976-1995 (1 file)   
 Lists of names and articles about deaths in detention. This file includes Hansard extracts.   
    
2.2.5. Clippings and articles   
 These include reports and analysis of the presence of foreign torturers in South Africa, reports about two members of the medical profession who helped reveal the incidence of torture and abuse of detainees, Drs Wendy Orr and Jonathan Gluckman.   
2.2.5.1. South American contacts 1981-1998 (1 file)   
 File with information about the presence of Argentinian torturers in South Africa.   
 Includes news article by Donald Woods, 1982, journal articles about Argentinian torture and newspaper clippings, some about named torturers.   
 See also Kairos final report for the TRC 2.2.4.1. Material also contains information about contacts with Chile.   
2.2.5.2. Dr Wendy Orr 1985-1990 (1 file)   
 Dr Orr, a district surgeon, reported the mistreatment of detainees and took a stand against these practices. She also supported applications for interdicts against the authorities and dealt with hostility from both the authorities and the medical profession. These clippings report and comment her actions.   
2.2.5.3. Dr Jonathan Gluckman 1992-1993 (1 file)   
 Dr Gluckman performed private autopsies on people who were found dead in detention. His reports revealed cases of assault and torture. He experienced considerable hostility from the authorities and received little support from the medical profession.   
2.2.5.4. Clippings 1976-2000 (7 files)   
 Clippings about detentions, torture and deaths of detainees.   
    
2.2.6. Publications, pamphlets and papers 1972-1989 (1 box)   
 Include:   
2.2.6.1 ANC:   
 Repression, torture and death in South Africa, copy of brochure, London, 1977   
2.2.6.2 American Association for the Advancement of Science Committee on Scientific Freedom and Responsibility:   
 Turning a blind eye? Medical accountability and the prevention of torture in South Africa, Mary Rainer, Washington, 1987   
2.2.6.3 Amnesty International:   
 Torture in the eighties, London, 1984   
2.2.6.4 Catholic Institute of International Research(CIIR), HRF and ICJ:   
2.2.6.4.1 Torture in South Africa, recent documents, brochure, London/Geneva, 1982 Catholic Institute of International Research(CIIR), HRF and ICJ: Dec-82 
 Torture, A cancer in our society, brochure, report on torture in SWA/Namibia, Hans Hunke and Justin Ellis, banned prior to publication by South African authorities, January 1978, London, February 1978   
2.2.6.5 Centre for African Studies   
 An empirical study of detention and torture in South Africa, Don Foster, African Seminar, Cape Town, 1985   
2.2.6.6 Christian Action:   
 Witness in the dark, police torture and brutality in South Africa, copy of pamphlet, London, 1964   
2.2.6.7 The Christian Institute of Southern Africa:   
2.2.6.7.1 Torture in South Africa, brochure, Cape Town, April 1977 Christian Institute of South Africa April 1977. 
2.2.6.8 Detainees Parents Support Committee:   
 Torture and assault in detention, document, press conference, Johannesburg, 25 August 1987   
 Memorandum on abuses of political detainees, Johannesburg, 1982   
2.2.6.9 Institute of Criminology:   
 Rehabilitation of torture victims, workshop, Detentions project, Cape Town 1984   
2.2.6.10 International Defence and Aid Fund:   
 South Africa, the terrorism of torture, brochure, an analysis of political trials and the use of torture in South Africa today, Hilda Bernstein, London, 1972   
2.2.6.11 Lawyers Committee for Civil Rights under Law:   
 Death in detention and South Africa's security laws, document, Washington, September 1983   
2.2.6.12 Lawyers Committee for Human Rights   
 Death in custody, 7 recent cases in South Africa, document, Washington, July 1986   
2.2.6.13 NAMDA:   
 The treatment of detainees, conference paper, Selma Browde, Cape Town, 1987   
2.2.6.14 South African Institute of Race Relations:   
 Behind closed doors, copy of document, a study of deaths in detention in South Africa between August 1963 and 1984 and of further deaths between June 1984 and September 1985, Shireen Motala, Braamfontein, 1987   
2.2.6.15 United Nations:   
 Maltreatment and torture of prisoners in South Africa, document, Report of the Special Committee on Apartheid, Bakarat Ahmad, New York, 1973   
2.2.6.16 UN Special Committee on the policies of apartheid of the Government of the Republic of South Africa:   
 Affidavits by prisoners in South Africa concerning ill-treatment in prison, transmitted by letter dated 23 November 1964 from Mrs Ruth First, London , document, UN GA document, New York, 25 December 1964 (A/AC.115/L.106)   
2.2.6.17 United Nations, Centre against Apartheid:   
 Steve Biko 1948-1977, Fighter against apartheid and apostle of black consciousness, 1977   
 Deaths of detainees and police brutality in South Africa since the Soweto Massacre in 1976, 1977   
 Torture and long-term imprisonment, psychical and psychological effects, Anthony Storr, 1984   
 Torture of detainees in South Africa, Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights Under Law, United Nations, 1985   
2.2.6.18 University of Cape Town Institute of Criminology:   
 Police abuses of non-criminal suspects, A survey of practices in the Cape Peninsula area, LD Fernandez   
 A study of detention and torture in South Africa, Preliminary report, Don Foster and Diane Sandler, 1985   
2.2.6.19 University of the Witwatersrand:   
 The psychology of torture, Shirley Spitz, Johannesburg, 1989   
2.2.6.20 World Peace Council:   
 Apartheid is built on torture, Helsinki   
2.2.6.21 Rory Riordan:   
 Two irregularities made possible by the present state of emergency, wide ranging torture using researched methods and massive jailing of blacks through hidden informers at mass rallies, copy of typed report, with 26 original and signed statements, Port Elizabeth, 26 August 1987   
2.2.6.22 Other:   
 Repressive State apparatus, 46 died in detention, copy of brochure, Special of Work in Progress, 22, Johannesburg, April 1982   
    
2.3. The death penalty and executions   
 The list of those sentenced to death includes individuals who were found guilty of acts not motivated by political aims.   
2.3.1. Kairos trial case files   
2.3.1.1. Sharpeville Six 1985-1992 (3 files)   
 Include campaign material and letters for their release, also court documents, letters from various organisations, a letter in response from the SA Embassy, a letter to one of the accused and a UN resolution. One file contains clippings   
2.3.1.1.1 Save the Sharpeville Six (campaign publication) Southern Africa The Imprisoned Society (SATIS) Apr-86 
2.3.1.1.2 United Nations Resolution 615 (1988) Centre Against Apaprtheid, United Nations 17-Jun-88 
2.3.1.2. M Mncube and M Nondula 1987-1992 (2 files)   
 Mthetheleli Mncube, Mzondeleli Nondula. Include clippings, court documents, petition for clemency.   
2.3.1.3. Robert McBride 1987-1992 (2 files)   
 Include copies of campaign and other letters and a file of clippings   
2.3.1.4. Dieter Gerhardt 1983-1990 (1 file)   
 Include court documents, application for indemnity and clippings   
2.3.1.5. B Tsotsobe, D Moise, J Shabangu 1981 (1 file)   
 Bobby Tsotsobe/David Moise/Johannes Shabangu. Clippings   
2.3.1.6. Upington Fourteen 1989-1991 (2 files)   
 Documents and clippings. The documents include profiles of Evelina de Bruin, and newsletters and letters from various organisations. One file contains clippings.   
2.3.1.7. N Potsane, F Msango, J Masina 1989-1990 (1 file)   
 Neo Potsane, Frans Msango, Jabu Masina. Clippings   
2.3.1.8. Addo Two 1988-1989 (1 file)   
 Ndumiso Siphenuka, Mackezwana Menze. Clippings and letters and newsletters from various anti-apartheid organisations   
2.3.1.9. David Mamphanga and others 1988-1991 (1 file)   
 David Mamphanga, Wilson Matshile, George Maungedzo, Patrick Molefe. Clippings   
2.3.1.10. T Mogoerane, J Mosololi, M Motaung 1982-1983 (1 file)   
 Thelle Mogoerane, Jerry Mosololi, Marcus Motaung. Clippings and campaign material against the execution, from organisations including the ANC   
2.3.1.11. J Lubisi, P Mashigo, N Manana 1980-1983 (1 file)   
 Johnson Lubisi, Petrus Mashigo, Naphtali Manana. Clippings and press releases and statements against the death sentence.   
2.3.1.12. Washington Bongco 1965 (1 item)   
 Statement from the UN Special Committee on the Policies of Apartheid of the Government of the Republic of South Africa, 6 April 1965, includes Bongcos affidavit about repeated assaults by the SAP and visits to medical practitioners.   
2.3.1.13. James Mange 1979-1980 (1 file)   
 Clippings and campaign document from the ANC   
2.3.1.14. Benjamin Moloise 1983-1985 (1 file)   
 Clippings and documents.   
2.3.1.15. Goch Street Shooting 1977-1978 (1 file)   
 Solomon Mahlangu   
2.3.1.16. Leonard Sheehana 1989-1991 (1 file)   
 Clippings.   
2.3.1.17. Andrew Zondo 1986 (1 file)   
 Clippings   
2.3.1.18. Barend Strydom Wit Wolf 1989-1991 (1 file)   
 Clippings.   
2.3.1.19. Paul Bezuidenhout 1991 (1 file)   
 Clippings   
2.3.1.20. Pieter Coetzee 1987 (2 items)   
 Clippings   
2.3.1.21. Joseph Chidi 1990 (3 items)   
 Clippings   
2.3.1.22. Mangena Boesman and others 1989 (3 items)   
 Mangena Boesman, Jacobus Freeman, Naftan Mchunu, Alfred Ndlela.   
2.3.1.23. Michael Erasmus and others 1989 (1 file)   
 Michael Erasmus, Sandra Smith, Jaim Harris, Jacon Ndaba. Clippings   
2.3.1.24. Thembile Lubelwana 1989 (2 items)   
 Clippings   
2.3.1.25. Abraham Mngomezulu 1989 (1 file)   
 Clippings.   
2.3.1.26. Sipho Nyinde and others 1989 (1 file)   
 Sipho Nyinde, Lucky Lithuli, Jeffrey Bhenge, John Ndlovu, Lazarus Mance. Clippings   
2.3.1.27. Dilizintaba 'Lucky' Nomnganga 1989 (1 file)   
 Clippings.   
2.3.1.28. William Mntombela 1989 (1 file)   
 Clippings.   
2.3.1.29. Samuel Mogotla 1989 (1 item)   
 Clipping.   
2.3.1.30. Z Mbatha, N Dlamini 1989 (1 file)   
 Zakhele Cyril Mbatha, Nicolas Dlamini. Clippings   
2.3.1.31. Paul Teflo Setlaba 1988 (1 file)   
 Clippings.   
2.3.1.32. Mxolisi Isaac Tshongoyi 1989 (1 file)   
 Clippings.   
2.3.1.33. Pieter van der Merwe 1989 (1 item)   
 Clipping.   
2.3.1.34. Miki Yelani 1987 (1 item)   
 Case summary.   
2.3.1.35. K Dyakala, Z Mjekula 1987 (1 item)   
 Kholisile Dyakala, Zwelindumile Mjekula. Clippings   
    
2.3.2. Reports and summaries   
 Reports of sentencing, executions and details of cases. Summaries and statistics of death row and executions and press releases about further cases. See also 2.7.1.1. for lists from the 1960s in the DPSC papers.   
2.3.2.1. Reports 1987-1989 (1 file)   
 Include:   
 Profile of Miki Yelani, 1987   
 Profile of Kolisile Dyakala and Zwelindumile Mjekula, 1987   
 Two draft reports of 19 cases, author unknown, undated   
 Southern Africa the Imprisoned Society (SATIS) summary report on political executions, 1987   
 Draft report, 'Judicial killings under apartheid', author unknown, undated   
 Unpublished report, 'Executions threatened', author unknown, 1988   
 Two Black Sash court researchers monthly reports for 1988, with attached letter to Mr Hartman, Kairos, signed by Barbara Orpen, undated and attached letter to Dear friend   
 Churches in Solidarity with the Frontline States, two unpublished reports on death row victims, including Paul Teflo Setlaba, 1988   
 International Defence and Aid Fund, three reports, draft report 'Political executions in SA', 1987,   
 People currently under sentence of death, 1989   
 Political death sentences, 1989   
2.3.2.2. Summaries (4 items)   
 Mostly undated material. Includes names, sentences and dates of sentence, judges, appeals and brief description of charges and names of death row prisoners as at 21 November 1988.   
2.3.2.3. Press releases 1985-1990 (1 file)   
 Mostly Amnesty International Urgent Action releases.   
    
2.3.3. Appeals and campaigns   
 Contain court documents, letters and campaign material.   
2.3.3.1. Documents 1991 (3 items)   
 Include:   
 Submission for Eric Tabethe, 28 March 1991   
 A supplementary petition for Stephen Mashinini, with a report and a petition for clemency, 1991   
 Press statement from Minister of Justice announcing commuting of death sentences, 17 April 1991   
2.3.3.2. Letters and campaign material   
 Includes a letter from the SA Embassy, the Hague, to Maarten Albersen about his letter concerning six South Africans who were sentenced to death, undated   
 Also pamphlets, advertisement, faxes and press statements from organisations and campaigns that include:   
 Anti-Apartheid Movement (France)   
 DC Committee   
 Death Row Campaign   
 National Union of Railwaymen   
 Save the Patriots Campaign   
 Society for the Abolition of the Death Penalty   
 South African Catholic Bishops Conference   
 South African Youth Congress   
    
2.3.4. Death penalty   
 Information about the campaigns for the abolition of the death penalty   
2.3.4.1. Statements 1989-1996 (1 file)   
 A file containing the views and arguments of involved organisations, with letters, press releases and advertisements. This includes an appeal from Pretorias death cells from Political prisoners on death row. Organisations include:   
 African National Congress   
 Amnesty International   
 Conference for a Democratic Future   
 Human Rights Commission   
 National Medical and Dental Association   
 South African Catholic Bishops Conference, includes an attached letter to Mr Dullah Omar, Minister of Justice, 26 May 1995 with a responding letter and press statement   
 South African Council of Churches   
    
2.3.4.2. Lawyers for Human Rights   
 This material illustrates the work done by this organisation in supporting prisoners condemned to death with appeals, mobilising support against the death penalty. Some documents come from other organisations.   
2.3.4.2.1. Resumption of executions 1991 (9 items)   
 After a short moratorium starting in 1990, executions were resumed in 1991. This material covers the planned execution of Paul Bezuidenhout and the response to the resumption.   
2.3.4.2.2. Review of death penalty 1991-1994 (8 items)   
 Includes letters to the Panel for the Reconsideration of Sentences of Certain Persons under Death sentence and the Chief Justice of South Africa. Some letters refer to the names of condemned prisoners. There are articles and letters written for and against the death penalty by members of the legal profession. Also included is a letter to the Minister of Justice about the Review Panel established by the Criminal Law Amendment Act, 1991   
2.3.4.2.3. Execution in Bophuthatswana 1991-1993 (24 items)   
 Bophuthatswana, as a homeland or Bantustan had no international recognition as an independent state, but continued to apply the death penalty independently of SA. The items include:   
 Letters about death row prisoners in Bophuthatswana   
 Letter from a member of the Federal Parliament of Germany, 18 June 1991   
 Letters from Lawyers for Human Rights to Nelson Mandela, and concerned individuals   
 Correspondence discussing the constitutionality of the death penalty in Bophuthatswana   
 Letters of appeal from foreign governments   
2.3.4.2.4. Execution in Venda 1993 (2 items)   
 Venda was a homeland or Bantustan and acted independently in applying the death penalty. The items deal with two cases of execution and a call for action against these executions.   
2.3.4.2.5. General (2 items)   
 Undated material. Items include:   
 Draft essay by Paula McBride who worked at Lawyers for Human Rights.   
 List of press contact details. Undated material   
    
2.3.4.3. Articles and unpublished reports (8 items)   
 These include:   
 Do you think that the executions take place at strategic times?, handwritten draft, author unknown, undated   
 Morality and social political consequences in relation to executions, prepared for Dr F Chikane, University of the Witwatersrand, authors name illegible, Sept 1989   
 Profile of a death row prisoner, Jo-Ann Bekker, presented to the Project for the Study of violence, July 1989   
 The living dead, living on death row, Lloyd Vogelman, Project for the Study of Violence, undated   
 Concerns re section 19 of the Criminal Law Amendment Act, 1990, Lawyers for Human Rights, undated   
 Disparity (lack of uniformity), a basic argument against the death penalty, JH van Rooyen, UNISA   
 Hangings in SA, on the trap door to oblivion, author unknown, undated   
 South Africa, hanging them high, the Press Trust, May 1987   
    
2.3.5. Legislation and the constitution   
2.3.5.1. Constitutional Court judgement 1995 (1 item)   
 The State v T Makwanyane and M Mchunu case no CCT/3/9. This case tested the constitutionality of the death penalty, which was declared unconstitutional. The papers contain the full judgement of Arthur Chaskalson, President of the Constitutional Court and other Constitutional Court judges.   
2.3.5.2. Legislation 1990 (4 items)   
 Include:   
 Criminal Law Amendment Bill and Act   
 Inquests Amendment Act, 2 items   
    
2.3.6. Hansard extracts 1988-1998 (1 file)   
    
2.3.7. Articles 1987-1990 (1 file)   
 These consist mostly of journal extracts. They report on statistics for executions, analysis of trials, sentences and the accused. Included is a Human Rights Commission Fact Paper 5 of October 1989, which looks at the death penalty and other articles about the death penalty.   
    
2.3.8. Clippings 1965-2000 (9 files)   
 Include reports about executions, prisoners on death row, calls for the abolition of the death penalty.   
    
2.3.9. Publications (2 files)   
 Pamphlets, articles and reports about the death penalty in South Africa, about the moratorium and about the abolition of the death penalty. These include:   
2.3.9.1 Amnesty International:   
2.3.9.1.1 South Africa, The death penalty, summary, February 1989   
2.3.9.1.2 The death penalty, Focus, 2 copies November 1988 Amnesty International Nov-88 
2.3.9.1.3 The death penalty in SA, Update, 1989 campaign circular, July 1989   
2.3.9.2 Black Sash:   
 Inside South Africa's death factory, 1989   
2.3.9.3 Institute of Criminology , University of Cape Town:   
 Save the Upington 26, brochure, Community attitudes to sentencing in the case of the Upington 26, Derrick Fine and Desiree Hansson, Cape Town, June 1989   
 Death by decree, South Africa and the death penalty, with the Society for the Abolition of the Death Penalty, Cape Town 1991   
2.3.9.4 Pietermaritzburg Agency for Christian Social Awareness (PACSA):   
2.3.9.4.1 Away from capital punishment towards respect for life, factsheet no 39, October 1994 Pietermaritzburg Agency for Christian Social Awareness (PACSA) Oct-94 
2.3.9.5 Society for the Abolition of the Death Penalty in South Africa:   
 Information sheet no 1, Johannesburg, 1991   
 Information sheet no 2, Johannesburg, 1991   
 Review of the death penalty in 1991, Desia Colgan, 1991   
2.3.9.6 South African Council of Churches:   
 The death penalty and the church in SA, Peter Randall, 1970   
2.3.9.7 Southern Africa Imprisoned Society (SATIS):   
2.3.9.7.1 Save Robert McBride, No apartheid executions, brochure, London, July 1988 Southern Africa Imprisoned Society (SATIS): Jul-88 
2.3.9.7.2 Save the Sharpeville Six, brochure, London, April 1986   
2.3.9.7.3 Save the Moroka Three, brochure, London 1982   
2.3.9.7.4 South Africas death penalty, new perspectives on extenuation, John Dugard, Andy Durbach and Charlene Lea, with the Centre for Applied Legal Studies, July 1989   
2.3.9.8 United Nations   
 Elaboration of a second optional protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, aiming at the abolition of the death penalty, Marc J Bossuyt, June 1987   
 Judicial executions and individual responsibility under international law, the case of the Sharpeville Six, WP Nagan, LG Albrecht, April 1988   
2.3.9.9 Phyllis Naidoo:   
 Waiting to die in Pretoria, brochure, Harare, 1990   
2.3.9.10 Mandla Seleoane:   
 The death penalty, Let the people decide, The Counter-Majoritarian Dilemma, Florida Hills, 1996   
2.3.9.11 Lieke van Nood:   
 The abolition of the death penalty in South Africa, Final thesis MA-degree, Amsterdam, 1997   
    
2.4. Banning   
 Banning consisted of restrictions on association and travel placed on individuals. They could be confined to their homes, limited to a certain area, forbidden to attend meetings, have to report in to a police station at regular intervals and not communicate with organisations among other restrictions. People could also be deported and non-SA citizens were at risk. Organisations that were banned had their operations terminated and it became an offence to further the aims of a banned organisation. Meetings, marches and numerous forms of protest were also banned.   
2.4.1. Banned individuals   
 These include restriction orders for people detained and released from prison.   
2.4.1.1. Winnie Mandela 1976-1995   
 Also see 2.5.1.1. for Nelson R Mandela.   
2.4.1.1.1. Clippings 1976-1995 (6 files)   
 Winnie Mandela was banned to Brandfort and subject to harassment by government and the right-wing as a prominent ANC activist and as the wife of Nelson Mandela.   
2.4.1.1.2. Stompie Moeketsi Seipei case 1989-1991 (2 files)   
 Stompie was a young activist who was murdered. Soccer coach Jerry Richardson was sentenced to death for his murder.   
    
2.4.1.2. Fatima Meer 1976 (1 file)   
 Prohibition order under the Internal Security Act 44 of 1950.   
2.4.1.3. Joy Harnden 1986 (1 file)   
 Banned under Public Safety Act 3 of 1953.   
2.4.1.4. Yasmin Jessie Duarte 1988-1989 (1 file)   
 Includes conditions for release from prison.   
2.4.1.5. Priscilla Hall 1986 (1 file)   
 Includes conditions for release from prison.   
2.4.1.6. Wolfram Kistner 1986 (1 file)   
 Includes conditions for release from prison.   
2.4.1.7. Susan Lund 1987 (1 file)   
 Includes conditions for release from prison.   
2.4.1.8. Octavius Magunda (1 file)   
 Includes conditions for release from prison. Date illegible.   
2.4.1.9. Christopher Ntuli 1989 (1 file)   
 Letter from attorney notifying the Minister of Law and Order that Ntuli was stabbed to death on his way back from reporting to the Inanda police station in compliance with his restriction order.   
2.4.1.10. Mbulelo Goniwe 1989 (1 file)   
 Includes conditions for release from prison.   
2.4.1.11. Azar Cachalia (1 file)   
 Case report, undated   
2.4.1.12. Firoz Cachalia (1 file)   
 Case report, undated   
2.4.1.13. Rowley Arenstein 1983 (1 item)   
2.4.1.14. Donald Woods 1977-1991 (3 files)   
 Woods was a journalist who was banned and then went into exile. Information on his activities, writing and exile included.   
    
2.4.2. Reports and lists 1973-1989 (1 file)   
2.4.2.1. Reports 1987-1989 (4 items)   
 These reports on banned people include:   
 Extracts of a report including Western Transvaal and Eastern Cape, source unknown   
 Amnesty International report on specific cases of banning, 1987   
 Human Rights Commission, fact paper, Banning and restriction of persons, March 1989   
 Amnesty International, Restrictions under the state of emergency regulations, May 1989   
2.4.2.2. Lists 1973-1987 (3 items)   
 For additional names see 2.7.1.1. DPSC documents.   
    
2.4.3. Campaigns 1980-1983 (1 file)   
 Campaigns include:   
 Black Sash, diary of the week, Civil Rights League call for repeal of laws that allow punishment without judicial process, Mary Burton, November 1980   
 Amnesty International, programs of action for banned people in South Africa, April1983-December 1983   
    
2.4.4. Banned organisations and meetings 1988-1989 (5 items)   
 Include:   
 List of organisations restricted since February 1988   
 Amnesty International report on the banning of human rights groups in SA, 1988   
 Hansard extract with list of banned organisations, June 1988   
 Government Gazette, order banning meetings under the banner Teachers Unity, September 1989   
 Human Rights Commission fact paper, Banning and restrictions of organisations, 1989   
    
2.4.5. Clippings 1972-1989 (8 files)   
 These report on a wide range of individual bannings and restricted or banned organisational activities. Press coverage itself was limited by restrictions.   
    
2.4.6. Articles and reports 1973-1986 (4 items)   
 Include:   
 Article by John Dugard and others on the application of the Internal Security Act, 1981   
 UN report: South Africas Internal Security Act, No. 44 of 1950. Dated December 1977   
 Report that includes banning of the Post newspaper, 1981   
 Amnesty International report on bannings set aside, 1986   
    
2.5. Political prisoners   
 Also see 6.3.7. for status of the liberation movement.   
2.5.1. Prisoners   
2.5.1.1. Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela   
 Also see 2.4.1.1. for Winnie Mandela.   
2.5.1.1.1. Imprisonment and release 1975-1999 (7 files)   
 These clippings contain reports from the period that Mandela was imprisoned to the events following his release. There are reports of international and local efforts to have him released, the conditions under which he lived and the effects on his health, communication with the SA government, the events following his release and his resumption of office in the ANC.   
2.5.1.1.2. Campaigns 1980-1988 (3 files)   
 This consists of three files, clippings, documents and press releases. The Free Mandela Campaign is the main focus of the clippings. The documents include:   
2.5.1.1.2.1 Archbishop Huddlestons declaration with a list of signatories, March 1983   
2.5.1.1.2.2 Submission to the UN, by Mary Benson about a letter she received from the banned Winnie Mandela, asking her to make known the conditions under which her husband was living, 25 May 1983   
2.5.1.1.2.3 Declaration from the mayors in favour of the release of Mandela, Ministers of Foreign and Home Affairs, Dutch, 1982   
2.5.1.1.2.4 Resolution from Sheffield Metropolitan District Council in commemoration of the campaign A day of solidarity with the people of South Africa, 21 July 1981   
2.5.1.1.2.5 A letter (copy) to the UN from the Lord Provost, Glasgow, about a petition of Mayors calling for the release of Nelson Mandela, signed by Michael Kelly, 25 November 1981   
2.5.1.1.2.6 UN reports including declarations by the Anti-Apartheid Movement and the International Defence and Aid Fund   
2.5.1.1.2.7 Statements and newsletters from Southern Africa-The Imprisoned Society (SATIS), anti-apartheid movement and a translation of a letter to Nieuwe Rotterdamse Courant from the Mayor of Amsterdam, 19 July 1983   
 Includes   
2.5.1.1.2.7.1 Free Nelson Mandela and all South African prisoners, letter, and attached: Call for an intensified campaign Southern Africa-The Imprisoned Society (SATIS) 18-Sep-82 
2.5.1.1.3. Background information 1982-1992 (1 file)   
 Covers Nelson Mandelas family, meetings with them, how his imprisonment affected them, especially after their first meeting after 28 years in prison. Also reports on his wife Winnie Mandela and international travel and awards. Mandela gained international stature whole he was still in prison. Much of this press examines his life, There is also information on films, books and other portrayals of him.   
2.5.1.1.4. Pamphlets 1982-1984 (4 items)   
 Items are:   
 United Nations Centre against Apartheid:   
 Free Nelson Mandela, brochure, International solidarity with political prisoners in South Africa, Over two thousand mayors from fifty-six countries call for the release of Nelson Mandela and other South African political prisoners, 1982   
 I have done my duty to my people and to South Africa, brochure, statement from the dock, 7 November 1962, Nelson Mandela, New York, 1982   
 Freedom, justice and dignity for all in South Africa, statements and articles by Nelson Mandela   
 International Association of Democratic Jurists, Belgium:   
 Nelson Mandela, dirigeant, avocat, prisonier, brochure in French, Brussels, 1984   
    
2.5.1.2. Dieter Gerhardt 1991 (1 item)   
 Clipping   
2.5.1.3. Robert McBride (1 item)   
 A press statement from the Political Prisoner Release Programme, undated   
2.5.1.4. Mthuthuzeli Ngqandu 1991 (1 item)   
 Argument for release referencing the intent of the Pretoria Minute.   
2.5.1.5. Bophuthatswana prisoners 1991 (2 items)   
 Also see 2.3.4.2.3.   
    
2.5.1.6. Other political prisoners 1974-1991 (4 files)   
 Lists and reports, the items include:   
 List of prominent political prisoners, undated   
 List of Namibian prisoners, October 1987   
 Black Sash report on Eastern Cape cases, December 1988   
 Undated report and analysis of detentions   
 Report, Detainees, 1974   
 Press statement from the Minister of Justice naming prisoners whose death sentences had been commuted, April 1991   
 International Defence and Aid Fund, notes and briefings 90/1 on Political prisoners in SA, February 1990   
 Extensive lists of prisoners, some are titled audited.   
    
2.5.2. Amnesty   
 Indemnity was to be granted to political prisoners in terms of the Pretoria Minute. There was considerable disagreement as to the definition of political prisoner. This resulted in numbers of prisoners staying in prison, in anticipation of being freed. CODESA, the negotiating forum for a democratic constitution, also intervened in this impasse. Prisoners took to protesting their continuing incarceration, and initiated a co-ordinated hunger strike.   
2.5.2.1. The Pretoria Minute 1990 (1 file) ANC, South African Government 06-08-1990 
 Agreement between the SA Government and the ANC. Includes agreement on amnesty and release of political prisoners   
 These include:   
 The published Pretoria Minute with the report from the Working Group established at the Groote Schuur, Cape Town talks   
    
2.5.2.2. International and local organisations 1990-1994 (2 files)   
 Material includes letters, statements and press releases reflecting the involvement of anti-apartheid organisations in the efforts to obtain the release of political prisoners. Appeals from groups of prisoners are also included. After the announcement of the Pretoria Minute, there were renewed efforts to hasten the release of political prisoners. The issues and debates included, the definition of political prisoner, the membership and powers of the Amnesty Committee, the conditions of imprisonment in South African and Bophuthatswana prisons and the slow pace of releases. These documents are arranged chronologically and reflect the discourse. Items include:   
2.5.2.2.1 Kairos, Defence and Aid Fund:   
2.5.2.2.1.1 Nederlandse juristen bezorgd over problemen rond vrijlating politieke gevangenenin Zuid-Afrika Kairos Werkgroep, Defence and Aid Fund, Holland 04-04-1991 
2.5.2.2.1 Political prisoners in Pretoria local prison and on death row, a letter from political prisoners in Pretoria Central Prison to Comrade Sisulu, dated 26 July 1991, from Robert McBride, Mthuthuzeli Ngqandu, Sibusiso Masuku, Oupa Mbonani, Sipho Elias Mabena. There is a photostat copy of a handwritten letter from political prisoners on death row, dated 4 April 1991   
2.5.2.2.2 Dutch government   
2.5.2.2.3 SA government   
2.5.2.2.4 ANC   
2.5.2.2.5 Amnesty International   
2.5.2.2.6 Anti-apartheid Movement, Netherlands   
2.5.2.2.7 Human Rights Commission   
2.5.2.2.8 Lawyers Committee for Civil Rights under Law   
2.5.2.2.9 Lawyers for Human Rights   
2.5.2.2.10 Medical Association of SA, including a letter from the Johannes Wier Foundation about detainees on a hunger strike.   
2.5.2.2.11 Political Prisoner Release Programme   
    
2.5.2.3. Amnesty applications (2 items)   
 Include:   
 Undated and incomplete application for Robert McBride   
 Unused copy of form for application for indemnity or release   
    
2.5.2.4. Documents and reports 1990-1991 (8 items)   
 These concern the release of prisoners and return of exiles under amnesty, reports on events, conditions and guidelines. Also included is a copy of the Notice of Temporary Immunity.   
 Include:   
 Political imprisonment in SA, special report, Human Rights Commission and IDAF, April 1991   
 Chronology of releases and events, political prisoners, exiles and indemnities, SA Barometer, 21 June 1991   
 Notice of Temporary Immunity under the Indemnity Act, 1990, Government Gazette, 30 September 1991   
 The Pretoria Minute and Working Group Report of August 6 1990, Lawyers Committee for Civil Rights under Law, August 1990   
 Guidelines for amnesty and indemnity for political offenders, LCCRUL, December 1990   
 Return of exiles and release of political prisoners, Black Sash, November 1990   
 Submission to the UN Committee of Experts, the release of political prisoners, Brian Currin, Lawyers for Human Rights, October 1991   
 Testimony for the subcommittee on Africa, US House of Representatives, Gay J McDougall, Lawyers Committee for civil, April 1991   
    
2.5.2.5. Clippings 1990-1992 (1 file)   
 Reports on negotiations, the definition of political prisoners, appeals for particular prisoners, international comment and involvement.   
    
2.5.3. Release of prisoners   
2.5.3.1. Government Gazette 1991 (1 file)   
 The names of those granted amnesty and release were published in the Government Gazette.   
    
2.5.3.2. Lists and reports 1984-1991 (1 file)   
 Include:   
 Lists of released and due to be released prisoners   
 Amnesty International announcements about released prisoners   
 Human Rights Commission reports   
 Article, interview with Muzi Nkosi, Focus, date unknown   
 Article, about David Moisi, Learn and Teach, date unknown   
 Administrative funding appeal, Association of Ex-political prisoners, undated   
    
2.5.3.3. Clippings 1976-1994 (8 files)   
 These include releases from the 1970s onwards.   
    
2.5.3.4. Hunger strike 1991 (3 files)   
 The slow process of releasing prisoners was frustrating and a co-ordinated hungers strike was undertaken. These press releases, reports, letters and statements relate the events and responses. Material and organisations include:   
 Human Rights Commission, these reports are comprehensive, updates provide an ongoing commentary on the events   
 Willie Hoffmeyr of attorneys Mallinick Ress Richman and Closenburg was involved in co-ordinating the release applications for Robben Island and provided reports on conditions   
 Lawyers for Human Rights   
 Health workers medical guidelines   
 SA Council of Churches press statement   
 Overseas organisations appeals   
 Clippings reporting conditions, events, demands and appeals   
    
2.5.4. Released prisoners   
2.5.4.1. Cowley House 1988-1990 (1 file)   
 A former monastery in Woodstock, Cape Town, Cowley House was run by the Dependants Conference and housed many political prisoners immediately after their release from Robben Island. It also offered visiting relatives and friends a place to stay and guidance in their visits to prisoners on Robben Island.   
 Include:   
 Press release about police raid, SA Council of Churches, 8 July 1988   
 Coming home, a package of information about the release of political prisoners in Western Cape, for distribution and discussion on Robben Island, 17 August 1990   
 Clippings and a Christmas newsletter dated 1990   
    
2.5.4.2. Ex-political prisoner support 1988-1991 (1 file)   
 Items include:   
 Now we are free, A handbook for ex-political prisoners and their families, Emergency Service group, (copy), Black Sash and Organisation of Appropriate Social Services in South Africa, undated, there is an appeal for Cowley House at the end of this handbook, undated   
 The Association of Ex-Political Prisoners of South Africa (AEPPSA), includes funding appeal, 1990-1991   
 South African Prisoners Organisation for Human Rights, this item is a copy of a handwritten constitution, undated   
 SAPET, a Natal workshop, 26-28 April 1991   
 Clipping about Prisoners Welfare Programme (PRIWELPRO) and National Union of Ex-prisoners for Crime Prevention and Rehabilitation (NUEPFOCAR), 1988   
    
2.5.5. Publications and pamphlets (3 files)   
 Include:   
2.5.5.1 ANC:   
 Brute force, copy of brochure, Treatment of prisoners in South Africas gaols, London, 1964   
2.5.5.2 Christian Institute of SA:   
2.5.5.2.1 Detention and dtente, Horst Kleinschmidt, updating and additions, 5 May 1976 Horst Kleinschmidt, Christian Institute of South Africa 05-05-1976 
 Report on detention and trial under the Terrorism Act, copy of document, 4th report of the Christian Institute, Braamfontein, October 1975   
2.5.5.3 IDAF and UN Centre Against Apartheid:   
 Prisoners of apartheid, copy of brochure, a biographical list of political prisoners and banned persons in South Africa, October 1978   
 Political trials in South Africa, 1976-1979 , unbound document, Glenn Moss, Development studies group information publication, Johannesburg, 1979   
2.5.5.4 The Programme for Social Change:   
 Report on arrests, detentions and trials, copy of document, of members and supporters of SASO, BPC, BAWU, TECON and BCP, 3d report, Braamfontein, April 1975   
2.5.5.5 UN Centre against Apartheid:   
2.5.5.5.1 Prisoners of apartheid, statement, Dr Yusuf Daidoo, ANC and SACP, November 1979 Dr Yusuf Daidoo November 1979. 
 Political prisoners in South Africa, Martin Ennals, Amnesty International, notes and documents, 1980   
 International day of solidarity with political prisoners of South Africa, 11 October 1991, document with several statements, Special Committee Against Apartheid, 1991   
 Solidarity with political prisoners in South Africa, notes and documents, 1979   
 Political prisoners in South Africa, document, International Defence and Aid Fund, New York, December 1987   
 Treatment of political detainees in South Africa, April, 1979   
 Repression in South Africa, Southern Africa, the Imprisoned Society (SATIS), New York, March 1985   
 Treatment of political prisoners and detainees in South Africa, April 1979   
 Police brutality and torture of political prisoners in South Africa, a call for urgent international action, (copy) statement by Leslie O Harriman, 1977   
2.5.5.6 University of the Western Cape:   
 Released into a prison without walls, Thomas J Winslow, on behalf of the Association of Ex-Political Prisoners, 25 June 1991   
    
2.6. Conditions in prison and detention   
 The material provides background information on conditions. Medical and legal aspects are described in documents, while clippings cover the full spectrum of conditions. (See 2.7.1. for the Detainees Parents Support Committee).   
    
2.6.1. Medical   
 See 2.7.1.1. for DPSC April 1986 report for information on the Gluckman Commission and a proposed medical protocol.   
    
2.6.1.1. Documents 1975-1988 (10 items)   
 Include:   
 Declaration of Tokyo, guidelines for medical doctors concerning torture, and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment in relation to detention and imprisonment, 1975   
 A protocol for the medical management of detainees   
 Extract of the Medical Association of South Africa minutes, 26 April 1985, supplement to SA Medical Journal (SAMJ), 14 September 1985   
 Article, visit of the Chairman of Council of the World Medical Association, SAMJ, 2 June 1984   
 SAMJ, copy, includes articles on care of detainees, 5 November 1988   
 Three extracts from The Lancet, referring to the enquiry into the culpability of Dr Ivor Lang and Dr Benjamin Tucker in the care of Steve Biko, 2 November 1985, medical care of detainees, 4 January 1986, MASA and the World Medical Association, 21 December 1985   
 List of references, in Dutch and English, about medical ethics, treatment of torture victims   
 The legal rights of the detainee to medical treatment, Prof SA Strauss, UNISA, Detention and Security Legislation Conference, University of Natal, 16 September 1982   
    
2.6.1.2. Articles and reports 1981-1989 (9 items)   
 Includes reports and extracts from magazines and journals and a few clippings.   
 Include:   
 Copy of a publication Critical Health, dedicated to Neil Aggett, includes article on Campaign for independent medical supervision of detainees, DPSC, undated   
 The Biko doctors, isolate the South African medical profession, Anti-Apartheid Health committee, June 1981   
 South Africa, Human rights violations and the medical profession, Amnesty International, 14 February 1986   
 The district surgeons dilemma, RL Selvan SC, SA Journal on Human Rights, undated   
 Torture without violence, clinical and ethical issues for mental health workers in the treatment of detainees, Jay Levin, SA Journal on human rights, undated   
 National Medical and Dental Association newsletter, article about district surgeons ethics, February 1989   
 Biko death still haunts SA Medical profession, Press Trust, 1982   
 The legal rights of the detainee to medical treatment, Prof SA Strauss, UNISA, Detention and Security Legislation Conference, 1982   
 Psychological effects of detention, GA Tyson, University of the Witwatersrand, Detention and Security Legislation Conference, 1982   
    
2.6.1.3. Donald Fraser Hospital, Dr D Tavenier 1988 (12 items)   
 Dr D Tavenier worked at the Donald Fraser Hospital, which served the local population and the nearby prison in Venda. He attempted to gain better access to detainees and prisoners, wrote to the Department of Health protesting their treatment and his medical reports reflect the maltreatment of detainees and prisoners.   
 Items include:   
 Letter to the Medical and Dental Council of SA asking for a response to a previous letter, 5 September 1988   
 Letter to the Director General, Department of Health describing the treatment of detainees at Venda Central prison, quoting the Tokyo Declaration, and making recommendations for the ethical treatment of prisoners, 20 September 1988   
 Letter from the Director General, Dept of Health, 23 September 1988   
 Letter to Venda Central Prison and Dept of Health about the lack of access to F Dau, an awaiting trial prisoner, 21 October 1988   
 Medical reports of people assaulted by the police or in prison   
    
2.6.1.4. Clippings 1981-1990 (1 file)   
 Articles on the medical conditions under which detainees and prisoners lived.   
 Include subjects such as medical ethics, guidelines, the actions and powers of district surgeons, the lack of recourse for detainees. Also articles on the activities of the medical profession and professional bodies. The Medical Association of South Africa comes under criticism.   
    
2.6.2. Legal   
2.6.2.1. Legislation 1985-1990 (5 items)   
 Prisons Amendment Bill and Act   
2.6.2.2. Documents 1968-1992 (4 items)   
 Articles include:   
 Protection of detainees, Fact or fiction? Raymond Tucker, Detention and Security Legislation Conference, University of Natal, September 1992   
 Prisons, A judicial obligation, Gilbert Marcus, undated   
 Legislation, decisions and practice, UN scrutiny of SA prisons, John Carey, Journal of International and Comparative Law, March 1968   
    
2.6.3. General conditions   
2.6.3.1. Debriefing reports 1987 (3 items)   
 Reports on the debriefings of prisoners at prisons in Eastern Cape.   
2.6.3.2. Visitors permit 1983 (1 item) Head of Prison, Robben Island 03-07-1983 
 Visitors permit to visit G Shezi on Robben Island, lists conditions, 3 July 1983   
2.6.3.3. Clippings and address lists 1977-1998 (1 file)   
 Small amount of material. Lists of prisons, contact details and some procedures.   
    
2.6.4. Hunger strikes   
2.6.4.1. Clippings 1983-1991 (3 files)   
 Clippings on condition of hunger strikers and their reasons and grievances. Comment from government and other organisations.   
2.6.4.2. Documents 1989 (1 file)   
 Include:   
 Detainees Co-ordinating Committee press kit, 6 March 1989   
 Press statement from detainees in Diepkloof Prison, Johannesburg, 6 February 1989 with letter to Minister Adriaan Vlok and lists of names and prisons   
 SA Council of Churches, two updates on detainees hunger strike by Saki Macozoma, 7 March 1989   
 Report on Sandile Thusi, a hunger striker from Natal University   
 Daily report on progress of hungers strike, 21 February to 3 March 1989   
 Letter from OASSSA, 14 March 1989   
 Letter from Rev Allan Boesak to Minister of Law and Order, printed and draft copy, 13 February 1989   
 Pamphlet, newsletter, telexes and press releases   
    
2.6.5. Women 1988-1994 (1 file)   
 The effects on women prisoners and spouses of detainees.   
 Organisations and magazines include:   
 Black Sash   
 Federation of South African women   
 STIR   
 Grassroots   
    
2.6.6. Policy development 1994-1997 (4 items)   
 Documents from ANC and other workshops.   
 Include:   
 Policy challenges in correctional services, Carl Niehaus, ANC Parliamentary Study Group on Correctional Services, ANC Peace and Security Summit, 30 August 1996   
 Budget vote debate, ANC, 9 June 1995   
 Paper, ANC Study Group on correctional services workshop, 11 September 1994   
 Prison Ministry, A challenge to the church, Rev DA Kuyler, April 1997   
    
2.6.7. Clippings 1967-2000 (11 files)   
 Reports on the conditions in prisons and detention, organisations efforts to improve conditions, protests, individual cases of maltreatment, questions around professional ethics, the behaviour of the security police and government and professional organisations attitudes and actions. Also international comment and involvement.   
    
2.6.8. Hansard extracts 1984-1995 (1 file)   
 Questions asked in parliament about prisons, prisoners and detainees, legislation and other matters concerning conditions and events.   
    
2.6.9. Publications and articles 1967-1994 (3 files, 4 books)   
 Include:   
 Africa Watch, Prison Project:   
 Prison conditions in South Africa, Human Rights Watch, 1994   
 Amnesty International:   
 Political imprisonment in South Africa, copy of booklet, London, 1978   
 Dependants' Conference/SACHED:   
 Staying strong in detention, Johannesburg, 1989   
 International Defence and Aid Fund:   
 South African prisons and the Red Cross investigation, brochure, an examination with prisoners testimony, London, 1967   
 Akin to slavery, prison labour in South Africa, Allen Cook, London, 1982   
 UN:   
 Apartheid and the treatment of prisoners in South Africa, statements and affidavits, 1967   
 Other:   
 Manual on detention, (brochure), copied version of a manual published by Media Projects, UCT, Cape Town, year unknown   
    
2.7. Non-governmental organisations   
 These are organisations that supported detainees, prisoners and released prisoners and detainees. Those that are issue-based are listed under previous headings. See 2.3.4.2. for Lawyers for Human Rights etc   
2.7.1. Detainees Parents Support Committee   
 The DPSC was formed in the early 1980s to support detainees and their families and to expose the inequities of security legislation and its application. The material consists of letters, newsletters, campaign material as well as material received from other organisations. There are faxes concerning the death of Neil Aggett and reports listing detentions, bannings and deaths. They also investigated the need for ethical treatment of detainees and made known the excesses committed by security police.   
    
2.7.1.1. Reports and campaigns 1982-1987 (1 file)   
 Include:   
2.7.1.1.1 Minutes of a meeting held between delegation from the DPSC and the security police at Wachthuis, Pretoria, 12 January 1982, mention is made of the three hour meeting being taped and a transcript of the tape being made, also of security police abuses of political detainees, refers to 27 April 1982 delegation, undated   
2.7.1.1.2 Memorandum on Security Police abuses of political detainees, mentions 27 April 1982 meeting with the Ministers of Law and Order and of Justice   
2.7.1.1.3 Speech on security legislation at DPSC's National Detainees' Day meeting by Anton Lubowski, 1986   
2.7.1.1.4 Letter from American Committee on Africa, 22 June 1982, attached document about meeting of DPSC delegation with the Ministers of Justice and Law and Order, Houses of Parliament, Cape Town, 27 April 1982   
2.7.1.1.5 Newsletter addressed to to whom it may concern mentions deaths of Steve Biko, Neil Aggett and Ernest Dipale   
2.7.1.1.6 Letter and report about medical treatment, lists name and circumstances from 1963 of deaths in detention   
2.7.1.1.7 April 1986 report included information about the Gluckman Commission into health services in 1942 and a report giving the proposed protocol for the medical examination of detainees by district surgeons   
2.7.1.1.8 Telegram to the Minister of Justice after death of Neil Aggett   
2.7.1.1.9 Annual National Detainees Day   
2.7.1.1.10 National Detainees Prayer Day   
2.7.1.1.11 Seminar for clergy on the care of detainees and their families   
2.7.1.1.12 Letter to the Natal Mercury about Minister Adriaan Vlok and detained youth, Charles and Sheila de Beer, 13 October 1987   
2.7.1.1.13 Letter from the Conference of Academics for a Democratic Society, University of the Witwatersrand, undated   
    
2.7.1.2. Newsletters 1982-1987 (1 file)   
 Include newsletters, telexes (German), and administrative material.   
    
2.7.1.3. Clippings 1981-1988 (5 files)   
 Reports on meetings with the authorities, detentions of young people, protests against detention without trial, long-term detentions and the treatment of detainees, MASA, campaigns.   
    
2.7.2. Detainees Aid Committee 1987-1989 (2 items)   
 Previously known as Detainees Support Committee (DESCOM)   
 Include:   
 Consolidated annual reports of the Pietermaritzburg Detainees Aid Committee, 1987-1989   
 Detentions and the crisis in the Pietermaritzburg area, 1987-1988   
    
2.7.3. Dependants Conference 1972-1987 (2 items)   
 Formed in 1963 to arrange support for families of political prisoners.   
 Include:   
 A unique organisation, Black Sash, November 1972   
 Debriefing report, 2 September 1987   
    
2.8. Security legislation and the judicial process   
 Also see Human Rights 6.3. Justice and the law for further material.   
    
2.8.1. Articles: 1982-1983 (8 items)   
 Some material is undated. Items include:   
 Detention and Security Legislation Conference, University of Natal:   
 Detention without trial and the rule of law, a comparative analysis, Prof AS Matthews, 15 September 1982   
 The judiciary and national security, Prof John Dugard, undated   
 Admissibility and reliability of detainee evidence, Adv C Nicholson, undated   
 The historical context of security legislation in South Africa, Mr DM Davis, undated   
 Opening of the Conference on Detention and Security Legislation at the University of Natal, September 1982   
 Seminar on the Legal Aspects of Apartheid:   
 Cases arising under South Africas security legislation, Adv G Bizos,   
 The courts, security legislation and the stifling of dissent, Gilbert Marcus, 1983   
 JG Riekert:   
 The DDD syndrome: Solitary confinement and a South African security law trial, undated.   
    
2.9. General resources   
 Also see 6.8.1.4. for additional Amnesty International press releases and 6.8.2. for Amnesty International Urgent Action releases.   
    
2.9.1. Lists 1982-1985 (1 file)   
 Include:   
 Women in prison and under banning orders, UN Centre against Apartheid, May 1982   
 The missing thousands, copies of lists by region, source unknown, undated   
 Lists from Cape Times, Hansard, Southern Africa Report, 1984, 1985   
    
2.9.2. Papers and reports 1979-1987 (1 file)   
 Include:   
 Black Sash National Conference:   
 Two court monitoring reports, 1987   
 International Journal of Offender Therapy:   
 The prospect of penal reform in South Africa, James Midgley, 1979   
 Raymond Suttner:   
 Politics and Resistance, Political trials and the legal process, undated   
    
2.9.3. Publications and pamphlets 1970-1994 (6 items)   
 Include:   
 Africa Watch Prison Project:   
2.9.3.1 Prison conditions in South Africa, 1994   
 Department of Prisons:   
2.9.3.2 Prison Institutions of the Union of SA, pamphlets no 1 and no 2, undated   
 International Defence and Aid Fund:   
2.9.3.2.1 Pamphlet No 1. Non-white prisoners at Colesberg Prison, Bien Donne Semi-open Institution, Zonderwater Tubercular Section Department of Prisons undated 
2.9.3.2.2 Pamphlet No 2   
2.9.3.2.3 South Africa, The imprisoned society, 1974   
2.9.3.2.4 South Africa, The violence of apartheid, 1970   
2.9.3.3 Institute of Criminology, University of Cape Town:   
2.9.3.3.1 Towards an understanding of prison gangs, N Haysom, 1981   
2.9.3.4 Esther Levitan:   
2.9.3.4.1 Book of Esther, copy, 1993   
    
VIOLENCE   
 The incidence of political violence escalated during the 1970s and 1990s. The liberation movements had gone underground with their banning. The state enacted legislation to prevent protest by civil society and exerted its authority through the use of the army and police force, which often led to violent confrontations. The covert activities of state security resulted in assassination attempts and confrontations. These and other factors contributed to a violent society.   
    
 Subjects include police, kitskonstabels, defence force, Civil Co-operation Bureau, ANC, APLA, third force, trials, sexual violence, weapons, taxi violence, train violence, self-defence units and church.   
 The material dates from 1972 to 2001. Dates refer to the dates on the material.   
 Unpublished material may not be quoted without the permission of the author.   
    
 The three main categories of material are:   
 Clippings consist of popular newspaper and magazine articles   
 Documents include organisational newsletters, Hansard extracts, published and unpublished reports, Amnesty International press alerts and notes.   
 Publications include government issues of tourist and investment brochures, conference and study papers, publications issued by non-governmental and political groups, copies of legislation, handbooks, publications from international, anti-apartheid organisations and churches.   
    
3.1. Police violence   
3.1.1. Langa and KwaNobuhle, Uitenhage   
 On 21 March 1985, residents of the township Langa in Uitenhage were travelling to attend a funeral in nearby KwaNobuhle township where political unrest had led to the death of several people. Police fired on them as they approached a white residential, area killing more than twenty people. The incident led to an international outcry and an upsurge in unrest across the country. In response, the Government appointed the Kannameyer Commission to investigate the actions of the riot police in the shootings.   
3.1.1.1. Clippings 1985-1987 (3 files)   
3.1.1.2. Sworn statements 1985 (1 file)   
 These were made by residents of KwaNobuhle about police violence in the township during January and February 1985.   
3.1.1.3. Documents 1985 (7 items)   
 Items include a report on the Langa shootings by the Roman Catholic Diocese of Port Elizabeth, and conference papers about the shootings.   
    
3.1.2. Langa and Nyanga, Cape Town   
 On the 20th of March 1960, the residents of Langa and Nyanga met to discuss the anti-Pass law protest. Police fired on them killing two people. Shortly afterwards, news of the Sharpeville shootings spread leading to angry protests in the townships.   
3.1.2.1. Clippings 960 (1 file)   
 Include reports on the protests and confrontations with the police.   
    
3.1.3. Municipal police and kitskonstabels   
 Municipal police and kitskonstabels (instant constables) were given minimal training. This system of policing was introduced in October 1986. After six weeks of training, they started their duties carrying arms and sjamboks (whips). They were accused of raping, assaulting and robbing residents.   
3.1.3.1. Clippings 1985-1992 (1 file)   
 Include the complaints of residents and reports of abuses.   
3.1.3.2. Documents 1987-1988 (4 items)   
 Include articles about the powers of the municipal police and a copy of Crisis News, a theological bulletin, about kitskonstabels   
    
3.1.4. General   
 Include clippings and documents about police violence including court cases suing SAP members for assault, murder, corruption among other incidents.   
3.1.4.1. Clippings 1976-2000 (19 files)   
 There is material about the 1983 police shooting of Saul Mhkize, a community activist from Driefontein, which was under threat of forced removal, the 1976 protests and the 1992 Trust Feeds massacre in Natal.   
3.1.4.2. Documents 1977-1984 (13 items)   
 Include:   
3.1.4.2.1 Memorandum prepared by Rev DPH Russell, April 1977, concerns riot police activities Rev DPH Russell Apr-77 
3.1.4.2.2 Copy of a search warrant for Khotso House, 8 October 1984 Magistrate, Johannesburg 08-10-1984 
3.1.4.2.3 Copy of the Police Amendment Act No 68 of 1984   
3.1.4.2.4 Pamphlet issued by the Detainees Support Committee (Descom) with advice about public and police interactions   
3.1.4.3. Publications 1987 (1 item)   
 This consists if a booklet published by the Southern African Catholic Bishops Conference, The last affidavits, 1987. It is a tribute to Molly Blackburn, Progressive Federal Party MP for Walmer, Port Elizabeth, and Brian Bishop a member of the Civil Rights League, and committee member of the SA Institute of Race Relations, who were killed in a car accident on 28 December 1985 after spending the day collecting statements at Bhongelethu, a shack settlement on the outskirts of Oudtshoorn, about South African security force activities.   
3.1.4.4. Hansard extracts 1984-1992 (2 files)   
 No extracts for 1989 and 1991.   
    
3.1.5. Background information   
3.1.5.1. Police unions   
 Police unions were characterised by in-fighting, allegations of racism and strike action over poor working conditions. The South African Police Union (SAPU) was seen as a more moderate organisation than the Police and Prisons Civil Rights Union (POPCRU).   
3.1.5.1.1. Clippings 1986-1996 (1 file)   
 No clippings for 1987, 1988 and 1991. Include articles about Gregory Rockman and his exposure of brutality and abuse by the riot police in dealing with protest actions and demonstrations.   
    
3.1.5.2. General   
3.1.5.2.1. Clippings 1976-2000 (13 files)   
 Include a wide range of topics about policing in South Africa such as working conditions, violence, intimidation and killing of members of the SAP, the prohibition of press disclosure of methods used to suppress unrest, interviews with high ranking policemen, police suicides, restructuring of the police and racism within the police force.   
3.1.5.2.2. Documents 1990-2000 (20 items)   
 Include:   
 Reports by the South African Institute of Race Relations, IDASA (Institute for a Democratic Alternative for South Africa) and the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation   
 Draft copy of a white paper on safety and security   
 Copy of an extract from the 1997 South African Year Book on Safety and Security   
3.1.5.2.3. Hansard extracts 1990-1995 (1 file)   
 These include questions on police actions.   
    
3.1.6. Publications (26 items)   
 Include:   
3.1.6.1 Black Sash:   
 Greenflies, Municipal police in the Eastern Cape, 1988   
 Memorandum on police conduct in the Eastern Cape, document, March 1985   
3.1.6.2 Christian Institute:   
3.1.6.2.1 South Africa, A police state?, 1976 Christian Institute of South Africa 20th September 1976 
3.1.6.3 COSAWR Nieuws:   
 Politie Special, Amsterdam, October 1985   
3.1.6.4 East London Crisis Centre:   
3.1.6.4.1 Operation Duncan Village, Security forces move in East London Crisis Centre undated 
3.1.6.5 Grahamstown Committee of Democrats:   
 E Street Grahamstown, 9 November 1984, An eye-witness report of violent state action in South Africa, 1985   
3.1.6.6 Independent Board of Inquiry:   
3.1.6.6.1 To protect and serve, A special report on police investigations into politically motivated violence and crimes, 1992 Independent Board of Inquiry (IBI) 1992 
3.1.6.7 International Defence and Aid Fund:   
 BOSS, The first 5 years, 1975   
3.1.6.8 Joint Forum on Policing:   
 Policing the transition, transforming the police, ANC, DIP, 1993   
 Press briefing, Cape Town, 1992   
3.1.6.9 Mission by Dutch Police Unions:   
 From a force to a service, Report to investigate possibilities to assist the transformation of the South African Police, 10-29 September 1993   
3.1.6.10 The Ministers Fraternal of Langa, Guguletu and Nyanga:   
 Role of the riot police in the burnings and killings Nyanga Cape Town, Christmas 1976, pamphlet   
3.1.6.11 Minister of Safety and Security:   
 Change, Draft policy document, 199?   
3.1.6.12 South African Police:   
 SAP annual report, 4 items 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990   
3.1.6.13 South African Outlook:   
 Police and the people, October 1985   
3.1.6.14 Southern African Catholic Bishops Conference, and CIIR:   
 Police conduct during township protests, brochure August November 1984,   
3.1.6.15 The Trauma Centre for Victims of Violence and Torture and IBI:   
 Breaking with the past? Reports of alleged human rights violations by South African Police 1990-1995, Network of Independent Monitors, 1995 UN Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice:   
 The movement towards community supported policing in South Africa, An abridged version of a submission to the Second Session, Vienna, 1993   
3.1.6.16 University of Cape Town, LEAP and CJRC, Institute of Criminology:   
 Kitskonstabels in crisis, A closer look at black on black policing, 1990   
3.1.6.17 University of the Western Cape:   
 The South African Police and law enforcement in South Africa, The quest for legitimacy, Nico Steytler, 1991   
3.1.6.18 University of the Witwatersrand, Policing Research Project:   
 The challenge for policing in the new South Africa, Janine Rauch, 1991   
 Deconstructing the South African force, Janine Rauch, 1991   
3.1.6.19 Project for the Study of Violence:   
 The South African Police, Managers of conflict or party to the conflict?, Johan L Olivier, Seminar paper no 1, 1991   
3.1.6.20 Werkgroep Kairos:   
 Politiegeweld in Zuid Afrika, Utrecht, 1985   
3.1.6.21 Rev DPH Russell:   
 The riot police and the suppression of truth, Memorandum prepared for Members of Parliament   
    
3.2. South African Defence Force (SADF)   
 Although the SADF supported the South African Police in policing the townships, the material below makes little reference to this. Also see 3.1.4.1. and 3.1.5.2.1.   
3.2.1. Clippings 1989-1995 (3 files)   
 Include reports about the integration of the liberation armies into the South African National Defence Force, previously the SADF and the integration problems of Umkhonto we Sizwe members. There are also reports about the Directorate of Covert Collection and budget information.   
    
3.2.2. Documents 1980-1994 (4 items)   
 Include:   
3.2.2.1 A copy of a report about the 1980 SADF Operation Smokeshell into Angola, Geoffrey Ludwig Boerne, 1989 (permission from author required)   
3.2.2.2 Dossier of documented incidents of SADF action in Mozambique Centre of African Studies, Eduardo Mondlane University, Mocambique Nov-88 
3.2.2.3 ANC pamphlet about the Matola Raid allegedly carried out by the SADF on three ANC residences in Maputo, Mozambique   
3.2.2.4 Article about the SADF and political reform   
    
3.2.3. Publications 1991 (2 items)   
 Include:   
 Sipho Dlamini:   
 Towards a new defence force, The SADF and problems of transition, Dr Govan Mbeki Fund, University of Amsterdam, March 1991   
 Phyllis Naidoo:   
 Le rona re batho, An account of the 1982 Maseru Massacre, 1992   
    
3.3. Assassinations and the third force   
 Allegations of a third force arose with the assassination of opponents of the Nationalist government. The covert nature of these activities and the incomplete information that was revealed later meant that the perpetrators of the incidents reported could not and in some instances remain unknown.   
3.3.1. Assassinations   
 Assassinations of political activists started in the early 1970s and carried on into the 1990s.   
3.3.1.1. Stanza Bopape 1988-1993 (2 files) Cosatu, Mamelodi Youth Organisation, Mamelodi Civic Association, Community Resource and Information Centre July to September 1988 
 Maisha Stanza Johannes Bopape was the General Secretary of the Mamelodi Civic Organisation and worked at the Community Resource and Information Centre (CRIC). He was detained on 29 June 1988 by the police under section 29 of the Internal Security Act. He was reported to have escaped. In 1993, an ex-policeman, Johnny Mokaleng pointed out sites where he alleged Bopapes body had been buried but no remains were found.   
 Documents include:   
 Copies of correspondence between Bopapes lawyers and the SAP about his alleged escape   
 Statements about his disappearance by organisations such as the Congress of SA Trade Unions (COSATU), Mamelodi Youth and Civic organisations and CRIC   
 Transcript of a debate in Parliament about his disappearance   
 Amnesty International pamphlet reporting his disappearance, 1991   
    
3.3.1.2. David Webster 1989-1999 (1 file)   
 Webster, an anthropologist at the University of the Witwatersrand and anti-apartheid activist, was shot on 1 May 1989 outside his house in Troyeville, Johannesburg. Civil Co-operation Bureau (CCB) operative Ferdi Barnard was found guilty of Websters murder in 1998 and sentenced to life imprisonment.   
 Material covers the murder, the investigations and Barnards trial. There is also a list of assassinations of South African political activists from 1974 to 1989.   
    
3.3.1.3. Griffiths and Victoria Mxenge 1981-1986 (1 file)   
 Material includes clippings and documents. Griffiths Mxenge, a civil rights lawyer, disappeared on the evening of 19 November after he left his Durban office. His body was found on 20 November 1981 in the township of Umlazi. His burnt out car was found at Piet Retief, close to the Swaziland border. In early August 1985, Victoria Nonyamezelo Mxenge was killed by four gunmen outside her Umlazi home in Durban. These cases were not solved.   
    
3.3.1.4. Anton Lubowski 1989-1995 (1 file)   
 Material includes clippings and documents. A prominent Namibian advocate and South West African Peoples Organisation (SWAPO) member, Lubowski was shot on 12 September 1989. According to an inquest held in 1994, he was murdered by Donald Acheson, an Irish mercenary, hired by the CCB.   
    
3.3.1.5. Cradock Four 1985-1994 (1 file)   
 Material includes clippings and reports. Matthew Goniwe, Sparrow Mkhonto, Fort Calata and Sicelo Mhlauli were political leaders and activists in Eastern Cape. They attended a United Democratic Front (UDF) meeting in Port Elizabeth on 27 June 1985 and disappeared while returning to their hometown Cradock. The bodies of Mkonto and Mhlauli were found near Bluewater Bay, Port Elizabeth and two days later, the bodies of Goniwe and Calata were found near St. Georges Strand, Port Elizabeth. At the inquest, Eastern Cape Judge President Neville Zietsman ruled that no one could be identified as the murders. He saw members of the security forces as the most likely perpetrators. No one was prosecuted.   
    
3.3.1.6. Eric Mntonga 1987-1989 (1 file)   
 Material includes clippings and reports. Mntonga was the Border co-director of the Institute for a Democratic Alternative for South Africa (IDASA). His body was found on a dirt road near King Williams Town in the Eastern Cape on 25 July 1987, a day after he had been summoned to Ciskeis Tamara police station. Six high ranking Ciskei policemen were arrested for Mntongas death and were given sentences of between two and twelve years for culpable homicide and defeating the ends of justice.   
    
3.3.1.7. Ruth First 1982 (2 files)   
 Material consists of clippings and documents, which include a review of her book, The barrel of a gun. First was a prominent member of the South African Communist Party and helped found the Congress of Democrats. She was killed by the explosion of a parcel bomb in her office at the Eduardo Mondlane University in Maputo on 17 August 1982. This case was never solved.   
    
3.3.1.8. Sikhumbuzo Mbatha 1992-1993 (2 files)   
 Material includes clippings and a pamphlet, Comrade lost, Pietermaritzburg Agency for Christian Social Awareness, 1992. Mbatha, also known as Sikhumbuzo Ngwenya, was a political activist in KwaZulu Natal, involved in student politics at the University of Zululand Ongoye Campus. He joined the United Democratic Front and the ANC and was detained on several occasions. He was involved in attempts to reconcile the IFP and ANC/UDF political factions. On 8 February 1992 he was shot in Pietermaritzburg. Three people were charged, but were acquitted on lack of evidence.   
    
3.3.1.9. Chris Hani 1993-1997 (1 file)   
 Material includes clippings. Martin Thembisile Hani was General-Secretary of the South African Communist Party and Chief of Staff of Umkhonto we Sizwe, the ANC armed wing. On 10 April 1993, he was assassinated outside his house in Boksburg by Polish-born Janus Walusz. Walusz and Clive Derby-Lewis, both members of the Conservative Party were sentenced to death. The sentence was later commuted to life imprisonment.   
    
3.3.1.10. General 1982-1995 (5 files)   
 The material contains clippings and documents. There are numerous reports about assassinations, attempted murder and the disappearance of activists. The incidence was high in the early 1990s when internecine violence was at a peak. Third force activities among other causes were blamed.   
 Reports include:   
 Bathandwa Ndondo, killed by Transkei security police   
 Jeanette and Katryn Schoon, killed by the explosion of a parcel bomb   
 Plot to assassinate Joe Slovo, SA Communist Party national chairperson   
 Assassination of Reggie Hadebe, ANC KwaZulu Natal midlands deputy chairperson   
 ANC lawyer, Bheki Mlangeni   
 Student leader, Siphiwo Mtimkulu   
 The killing of ANC and IFP activists in KwaZulu Natal and elsewhere   
 1989 list issued by SA Barometer of political activists assassinated from 1974 to 1989   
 Copy of a fax from the Director of Diakonia, a church organisation, about the disappearance of Claire Stewart, a field worker in northern KwaZulu-Natal in 1993   
 Memorial pamphlet for Sahdhan Naidoo, an anti-apartheid activist, who was killed in 1989 allegedly by a self-confessed agent   
 Paper about extra-judicial executions and disappearances   
 Two Amnesty International statements, 1992, refer to extra-judicial executions including the assassination of Tshepo Lengwati, an ANC member and former Robben Island prisoner and Samuel Nyawo, unionist and ANC member   
    
3.3.2. Covert activities   
 Activities of a third force were first referred to in 1990 when the term was used publicly by leaders of the ANC including Nelson Mandela. Since 1994, more evidence confirmed the existence of independent units and others in the SAP and SADF. The SA government denied third force activities. This was contradicted in the evidence at trials such as those of Eugene de Kock and Magnus Malan. Covert organisations included Vlakplaas, state-sponsored hit squads and dirty tricks organisations such as the Defence Forces Civil Co-operation Bureau (CCB) and Military Intelligences Directorate of Covert Collection. There was and a cross-pollination of staff between these organisations.   
 The material covers the trials of two men involved in the above activities. Eugene de Kock led a notorious death squad operating from Vlakplaas and Malan, as Defence Minister and political boss of the SA Defence Force and the CCB, was aware of the covert activities of both organs.   
    
3.3.2.1. Eugene de Kock trial 1994-1997 (2 files)   
 Eugene Alexander De Kock was commander of the C10 unit, based at Vlakplaas, a farm outside Pretoria. He faced 121 charges ranging from fraud to murder and was accused of heading a police death squad that killed individuals including ANC lawyer, Bheki Mlangeni and former Vlakplaas colleague Brain Ngqulunga. His trial started in February 1995 and ended in November 1996 when he was sentenced to a total of 212 years in prison. The material consists of newspaper clippings.   
    
3.3.2.2. Magnus Malan trial 1995-1996 (3 files)   
 Together with 19 others, Malan (former Minister of Defence and member of the State Security Council) was accused of involvement in the 1987 KwaMakhutha massacre. Some of the over 200 Inkatha Freedom Party recruits secretly trained by the SADF were involved in the massacre. On the 21 January 1987, 13 people were murdered in an attack on the home of UDF activist, Victor Ntuli. The material consists of clippings and articles.   
    
3.3.2.3. Government intelligence organisations   
 The organisations include the Bureau of State Security (BOSS) and National Intelligence. There is also some material about the Broederbond which was an Afrikaner secret organisation that influenced government appointments and politics.   
    
3.3.2.3.1. Clippings 1976-2000 (20 files)   
 The press clippings report on covert activities and organisations, collusion with IFP supporters, alleged South African involvement in the sabotage of aircraft of the Zimbabwean airforce in 1982 at Thornhill air base, and a raid on homes in Gaborone, Botswana. Other reports cover ex-policeman Dirk Coetzees confessions about death squads, the Inkathagate scandal, the Lothar Neethling case in which he sued the Weekly Mail and the Vrye Weekblad for defamation and the 1986 killing of four Chesterville youths. Some reports refer to the Harms and other commissions. See 3.10 for further material.   
    
3.3.2.3.2. Articles, briefings and reports 1988-1998 (2 files)   
 These items include:   
 Article by the ANC about violence in the transitional period   
 Briefing by the International Defence and Aid Fund about state violence   
 Research article by the Progressive Federal Party about local government and state security   
 Transcript of a hearing held by the Dutch Anti-Apartheid movement about abductions by the government of opponents of apartheid   
 Report in Afrikaans by the 1989 committee investigating the allegations of Almond Nofomela about third force activities and a counter report regarding Nofomelas allegations by the Independent Board of Investigation. See 3.10.1.   
    
3.3.2.3.3. Publications (3 items)   
 Include:   
 Human Rights Commission:   
 The CCB origins, Actions and future of the Civil Co-operation Bureau, issued in association with the David Webster Trust, 1990.   
 Parliament of the Republic of South Africa   
 Special report of the Auditor-General on the Special Defence Account pursuant to the First Report of the Joint Committee on Public Accounts, (C1-90) 1990   
 First Report of the Joint Committee on Public Accounts, 1991   
    
3.4. Organisational violence   
3.4.1. Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP)   
 The IFP, led by Dr Mangosuthu Buthelezi, dominated black politics in KwaZulu Natal. There was conflict between the IFP and the ANC, at times fuelled by the authorities.   
3.4.1.1. Clippings 1986-1997 4 files)   
 Material includes reports about Inkatha led violence, Inkatha-aligned vigilante action, KwaZulu and SAP collusion with Inkatha supporters and statements made by IFP members including Dr Mangosuthu Buthelezi.   
    
3.4.1.2. Articles, reports and statements 1987-1992 (16 items)   
 The IFP role in the violence, particularly in KwaZulu Natal is reported, several items do not display the authors name.   
 Include:   
 Interim report on the violence in Natal by Advocate RS Douglas SC   
 Memorandum on violence in Natal   
 Statement by Mangosutho Buthelezi, President of the IFP about the violence and refuting allegations against the IFP   
 Report from the Ad Hoc Crisis Committee about the crisis in Vulindelela and the Edendale valley, 25-31 March 1990   
 Joint statement by the International Commission of Jurists on the violence in Natal   
 Memorandum by the Congress of South African Trade Unions and United Democratic Front about the violence in Pietermaritzburg   
    
3.4.1.3. Legal material 1988-1990 (4 items)   
 Include:   
 Application made in the Supreme Court of South Africa, Natal by Phineas Zondo, Congress of South African Trade Unions and Mbusiswa Madlala and 17 others against Inkatha and six other respondents for an interdict, with supplementary and replying affidavits   
 Copies of the KwaZulu and Natal Joint Services Bill, a Joint Committee amendment and a rejected amendment   
    
3.4.2. African National Congress (ANC)   
3.4.2.1. Torture in ANC camps 1988-1998 (5 files)   
 In 1990, former ANC guerrillas alleged torture and murder in ANC detention camps implicating prominent ANC leaders. Three commissions investigated the accusations, the Skweyiya and Douglas Commissions in 1992, and Motseunyane Commission in 1993. The Skeweyiya and Motseunyane Commissions were appointed by the ANC and the Douglas Commission by the International Freedom Foundation. Both ANC commissions indicated systematic and serious abuses and the use of excessive force in the camps. The recommendations of the Motseunyane Commission, including disciplinary action against ANC members implicated and payment of compensation were not implemented by the organisation.   
 Articles and reports include:   
 Mbokodo, Security in ANC camps, 1961-1990, Stephen Ellis   
 Copies of the Skeweyiya and Motseunyane reports   
 Torture, ill-treatment and executions in African National Congress camps, Amnesty International, London, 1992   
 Fighting the crazy war, compiled by Vusi Shange   
    
3.4.2.2. Shell House shooting 1994-1997 (1 file)   
 On 28th March 1994, a month before the first democratic election, thousands of IFP supporters marched through Johannesburg to demand constitutional powers for their king and to launch the IFPs anti-election campaign. More than 54 people were killed, eight shot outside the ANCs Shell House headquarters. File consists of newspaper clippings.   
    
3.4.2.3. General 1978- 1994 (3 files)   
 Material consists of clippings and reports. There are reports on ANC, PAC clashes, the violence in KwaZulu Natal and statements by the ANC.   
 Items include:   
 Interviews with Chris Hani and Joe Slovo   
 The ANC in 1990 , Gavin Evans   
 A case study of Lamontville a booklet issued by the Information Centre of South Africa, 1984   
    
3.4.3. Azanian Peoples Liberation Army (APLA) 1993-1995 (1 file)   
 APLA, the military wing of the Pan Africanist Party claimed responsibility for the St. James Church massacre in Kenilworth, Cape Town, on Sunday 25 July 1993, with 11 people killed and more than 50 injured. Newspaper clippings report on the massacre and trial.   
    
3.4.4. Pan Africanist Students Organisation (PASO) 1993-1994 (1 file)   
 On 25 August 1993, Amy Biehl, an American student, was stoned and stabbed by members of PASO, the student wing of the PAC in Gugulethu, near Cape Town. The clippings report on her murder and the trial of three PASO members.   
    
3.4.5. Right-wing violence   
 The right-wing in South Africa included political parties that participated in parliament, such as the Conservative Party and the Herstigte Nasionale Party and extra-parliamentary groups including the Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging (AWB), Blanke Bevrydigingsbeweging (White Freedom Movement) and the Wit Wolwe (White Wolves). The material includes reports on the Afrikaner Broederbond that was rumoured to have excessive influence on the government. The Afrikaans speaking white population consisted of both conservative and liberal groups.   
    
3.4.5.1. Clippings 1972-1997 (13 files)   
 Subjects include:   
 The convicted murderer Barend Strydom of the Wit Wolwe   
 The increased popularity of the Conservative Party and other right-wing groups such as the AWB   
 The entrenchment of apartheid at local level   
 Right-wing attacks on anti-apartheid organisations and individuals   
 Opposition by right-wing groups to the discussions held with the ANC in Dakar in 1987   
 Right-wing action before and after the 1994 elections including the invasion of the World Trade Centre by members of the AWB in June 1993 during the Codesa negotiations   
    
3.4.5.2. Articles and memoranda 1987-1993 (5 items)   
 Include:   
 Press Trust of South Africa article about the Blanke Bevrydigingsbeweging and the South African Government   
 Memorandum by the Independent Board of Inquiry into Informal Repression, about extreme right-wing organisations   
 Articles by J Hyslop about the AWB   
 Article from the Southern African Catholic Bishops Conference concerning right-wing violence   
 Article by JA Coetzer about the extent of right-wing violence in the country   
    
3.5. Civil violence   
 This section refers to violence that occurred in the civilian sphere such as vigilantism, witch murders and taxi wars.   
3.5.1. Vigilantism   
 Vigilantism included the independent actions of groups with different agendas and opinions. Some was linked to third-force activities. Tensions were aggravated between groups to escalate black-on-black violence. This created divisions between liberation movements and members of communities and resulted in the deaths of political opponents. Vigilantism was also used by some traditional leaders who saw their authority being usurped. The establishment of official town councils was another catalyst and covert activities using vigilantes dealt with opposition. Vigilantism was often linked to right-wing, conservative groups and occurred in townships, villages and informal settlements across the country.   
3.5.1.1. Clippings 1982-1997 (4 files)   
 Reports on vigilante actions include:   
 Vigilantism in Moutse who were terrorised by Kwandebele vigilantes, the Imboloto, because the villagers did not want to be incorporated into Kwandebele, 1986   
 Witdoeke in Crossroads, KTC and Khayalitsha squatter camps in Cape Town, 1986   
 Vigilante action on the East Rand of Johannesburg in the mid-1980s   
 Vigilante attacks on residents of Soweto in 1987 to break up street committees   
 Vigilante attacks against members of youth, civic and political organisations in the Welkom, Free State township of Thabong in 1985   
 Ama Afrika vigilantes in KwaNobuhle township, Uitenhage   
 A Team vigilante action in Chesterville, Durban.   
3.5.1.2. Articles, memoranda and papers 1986-1991 (15 items)   
 Article by the Press Trust of South Africa about vigilante-police activity   
 Memorandum from the UDF concerning apartheid vigilantes   
 Article about an anonymous letter sent to the United Nations, the then Archbishop of the Anglican Church, Desmond Tutu, Dr Beyers Naude and others about the conditions in the Uitenhage townships caused by the Ama Afrika   
 Three papers presented at a conference organised by the Catholic Institute for International Relations about death squads and vigilantes.   
3.5.1.3. Affidavits and statements 1986-1987 (3 items)   
 These concern the destruction of the Nyanga Bush informal settlement in 1986.   
    
3.5.2. Self defence units (SDUs) 1991-1995 (1 file)   
 SDUs were established by communities and political groups to protect communities from crime and violence caused by tensions between political parties, between residents and vigilantes and general lawlessness. Many SDUs became uncontrollable and attacked residents committing the same acts that they were intended to prevent. The units were disbanded after the democratic elections in 1994. Material consists of one file of newspaper clippings.   
3.5.3. Hostel violence 1990-1996 (2 files)   
 Single sex hostels were used to support influx control and migrant labour policies. Hostels became a site of violence between extra-parliamentary opposition and state-aligned organisations, particularly the IFP. This also resulted in alienation of the surrounding communities. The overcrowded and unhygienic conditions in the hostels contributed further to the violence.   
 Items include:   
 The human face of violence, Lauren Segal   
 Hostel dwellers speak; a case study of Durban hostels by Paulus Zulu   
 Article from Indicator SA, vol 8, 1991, about hostels and hostilities by Jeremy Seekings.   
3.5.4. Weapons and violence 1989-1996 (1 file)   
 The trend in South Africa was for citizens to arm themselves for protection. This resulted in efforts to control the spread of illegal firearms, campaigns for a gun free country, theft of firearms and the controversy around the carrying of traditional weapons, particularly by members of political parties. Material consists of newspaper clippings with copies of bills and Hansard extracts.   
3.5.5. Sexual violence 1984-2001 (3 files)   
 Subjects include the increasing incidence of rape and physical violence against women and children; rape and HIV/AIDS, rape survivor support services, women and children caught up in the political violence of the early 1990s particularly in KwaZulu Natal and family murders and suicide by breadwinners.   
 The documents include:   
 Factsheet on domestic violence, Pietermaritzburg Agency for Christian Social Awareness, 1998   
 Several articles about women and the war in KwaZulu Natal   
 Journal articles about violence against women by Lloyd Vogelman   
3.5.6. Church and violence 1990-1995 (2 files)   
 Church commentary on the violence in South Africa included initiation and support of peace initiatives; condemnation of security force violence and the St James Church massacre. See 3.4.3. The material consists of newspaper clippings, articles and reports. Documents include:   
 General Secretarys report to the 22nd National Conference of the SACC   
 Urgent appeal to the British Government by the SACC concerning the deadlock at the CODESA negotiations   
 Appeal by Working Group Kairos for peace in the Crossroads informal settlement   
 Interim report to KwaZulu Natal Church leaders group about bringing peace to the province.   
3.5.7. Corporal punishment 1984-2000 (2 files)   
 Judicial corporal punishment that involved whipping criminals and petty offenders and the use of corporal punishment in schools such as caning and hitting school pupils was banned in the 1990s.   
 Material consists of newspaper clippings and articles. The articles include:   
 Two articles by Amnesty International about the use of whipping as judicial punishment and concern the medical effects of whipping   
 A draft copy of an article by Julia Sloth-Nielson about corporal punishment   
 Article of the Abolition of Corporal Punishment Bill, 1997   
    
3.5.8. Taxi violence 1989-1997 (4 files)   
 Taxi industry conflict, after the 1994 elections, intensified with killings and assassinations taking place on a regular basis involving the injury and deaths of individuals caught in the cross-fire. The taxi industry was problematic with competition for over-serviced routes, pirate taxis, unroadworthy vehicles and fraudulent permits and competition for routes.   
3.5.8.1. Clippings 1989-1997 (2 files)   
 Consists of one file of newspaper clippings and one file of articles. The articles concern conflict and violence in the industry and the proposed restructuring of the industry.   
3.5.8.2 Documents 1993 (2 items)   
 Contains two statements by the ANC about incidents of taxi violence.   
3.5.8.3 Affidavits 1991 (4 items)   
 Affidavits from individuals involved in incidents of taxi violence.   
    
3.5.9. Ethnic violence 1991-1993 (2 files)   
 Consists of one file of newspaper clippings and one file of articles about ethnicity and violence in the townships and on gold mines in South Africa.   
3.5.10. Witch killing and ritual murder 1987-1999 (2 files)   
 Consists of one file of newspaper clippings and one file of articles and reports. Articles include a paper for the Project on Political Violence about anti-witchcraft attacks, and a report of the commission of inquiry into witchcraft violence and ritual murders in the Northern province, later Limpopo.   
3.5.11. Train violence 1990-1994 (2 files)   
 During the early 1990s, violence on train passengers on the Reef was endemic. It was rumoured that it was instigated by third force elements wanting to prevent negotiations between the government and the extra-parliamentary political parties. The material consists of a file of newspaper clippings and a file of reports. The reports are about enquiries into the train violence.   
    
3.6. Regional violence   
3.6.1. Pretoria-Witwatersrand-Vaal   
3.6.1.1. Sebokeng 1990-1994 (1 files)   
 The township suffered several brutal killings and massacres. The material consists of newspaper clippings and documents.   
 Documents include:   
 Memorandum on incidents on 4 September 1990   
 Preliminary report on the Sebokeng massacre of 1993   
 ANC press statement on the violence in the townships with reference to the violence in Sebokeng.   
3.6.1.2. Thokozo, Kathlehong and Vosloorus 1990-1993 (1 file)   
 Hostilities between different political groups such as the ANC and IFP, police violence, self-defence units and crime are reported.   
3.6.1.3. Boipathong 1992-1994 (2 files)   
 Clippings about the massacre, investigation and international and local reactions.   
 The documents include:   
 Report from the Goldstone Commission, 6 July 1992   
 Letter from the Christen Democratisch Jongeren Appel to the Dutch Minister of Foreign affairs, 1 July 1992   
 Memoranda on attempts to prevent the massacre, undated   
 ANC and SACC press releases and statements   
3.6.1.4. Alexandra 1990-1993 (1 file)   
 Reports on clashes with the police and other incidents of violence. The road through Alexandria to the industrial area became a no-go area.   
3.6.1.5. Soweto 1976-1993 (2 files)   
 Include:   
 Report on violence in Meadowlands, April 1991-June 1992, 9 June 1992   
 File of clippings for August 1976   
3.6.1.6. Swanieville 1991-1993 (1 file)   
 Includes material about the massacre on 12 May 1991. Documents include:   
 The Swanieville Saga, report about a board of inquiry consisting of the Centre for Applied Legal Studies, and Lawyers for Human Rights, undated   
 Incomplete briefing document, undated   
    
3.6.2. KwaZulu Natal 1985-2000 (9 files)   
 From the mid-1980s, KwaZulu Natal was the scene of intense political violence between supporters of Inkatha, the ANC, UDF and other parties. The SAP was seen to support Inkatha, further fuelling the violence. The violence threatened to derail the move towards democratisation, and continued after the first democratic elections in 1994.   
3.6.2.1. Clippings 1985-2000 (6 files)   
 Reports cover the violence in Natal, and negotiations between the parties including the IFP, ANC and government to restore peace.   
3.6.2.2. Reports 1985-1991 (1 file)   
 Reports include:   
 Undated list of organisations monitoring the violence in Natal.   
 Transcript of a television programme, Network, aired on SABC1, 1988   
 Two letters from M de Haas of the Social Anthropology Dept, University of Natal, Durban; one to the SAP and one to organisations.   
 1990 report concerning the International Commission of Jurists mission to Natal, John Macdonald, QC   
 Report to Beyers Naude, 23 March 1990   
3.6.2.3. Press releases and statements 1990-1997 (1 file)   
 Press releases and statements concern the violence as well as peace efforts. Organisations and items include:   
 South African Council of Churches   
 ANC   
 Natal Monitor   
 Joint IFP-ANC statement following their meeting, 29 January 1991   
 International Commission of Jurists on free and fair elections being contingent on the violence ending.   
3.6.2.4. Articles 1987-1995 (1 file)   
 Items include:   
 Numbering the dead, John Aitchison, Centre for Adult Education, University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg, 1987   
 The history of violence in Port Shepstone, Cosmos Desmond, August 1993   
 An anatomy of violence, A study of the conflict in the areas of KwaZulu surrounding Port Shepstone, August 1991.   
 Experiencing the violence, Tim Smith, SJ, Langsyde Catholic Mission, for the Seminar on Political Violence in Pietermaritzburg, 1988   
 Reporting the violence, David Robbins, Centre for Adult Education, University of Natal, for the Seminar on Political Violence in Pietermaritzburg, 1988   
 Policing liberation politics, Gerhard Mare and Georgina Hamilton, for the Seminar on Political Violence in Pietermaritzburg, 1988   
    
3.6.3. General regional violence   
3.6.3.1. Clippings 1985-1993 (1 file)   
 Clippings of reports about township violence covering a number of areas.   
3.6.3.2. Documents 1985-1990 (4 items)   
 Include general reports and information on Khayalitsha and Evander.   
 Items include:   
 Message from Western Province Council of Churches about meeting concerning removal to Khayelitsha and the stone-throwing and police action, request for Bishop Tutus presence, 19 February 1985   
 Message from A Nkabinde by phone from a shop in Evander, 28 March 1985   
 Report of MA Nkabinde to the crisis committee, 11 March 1985   
 Transvaal townships , the new war zones, L Segal and L Vogelman, Project for the Study of Violence, 20 August 1990   
    
3.7. Peoples courts and popular justice   
3.7.1. Clippings 1986-2000 (1 file)   
 These cover incidents of killings of alleged offenders, crime, beatings and the legitimacy of peoples courts.   
3.7.2. Documents 1990-1991 (8 items)   
 Include:   
 Proposals for community dispute resolutions and community courts   
 Letter from Moses Mayekiso to the Minister of Justice, Mr Coetzee proposing a meeting, 23 January 1991 and minutes of a meeting with the Minister (undated)   
 Lawyers for Human Rights fax with attachments on situation at Kimberley prison and peoples court murder (1991) and a press statement from the Minister of Justice   
 Community courts in South Africa, pamphlet by Daniel Nina, 1995   
3.7.3. Reports, Wilfried Scharf 1990-1991 (4 items)   
 Scharf was the director of the Institute of Criminology at the University of Cape Town and produced several reports and recommendations about peoples courts. There are three articles and memoranda and reports on peoples courts and individual cases. These include:   
 Memorandum on peoples courts, 26 October 1990   
 Peoples courts, the sociology of township justice, 18 November 1990   
 Report on State v Sipati and four others, 1991   
 Recommendations on sentencing for State v Sipati and four others and S v Booi and three others, 16 July 1991   
3.7.4. Papers and articles 1989-1999 (11 items)   
 Subjects include street committees, peoples courts and transition.   
 Authors include:   
 Sandra Burman   
 Enver Daniels   
 Daniel Nina   
 Barbara Oomen,   
 Brenda Grant and Pamela-Jane Schwikkard   
 Jeremy Seekings   
 Prof LP Vorster   
 Thokozani Xaba   
    
3.8. Crime   
3.8.1. Clippings 1990-2001 (6 files)   
 Reports on crime, calls for intervention and articles from concerned organisations, government action   
3.8.2. Documents   
3.8.2.1. National Crime Prevention Strategy 1996 (1 item)   
 Draft document, May 1996 produced by government inter-departmental team   
3.8.2.2. Addresses and press 1994-1997 (5 items)   
 Items are:   
 Address by Nelson Mandela, 15 October 1994   
 Address by and Carl Niehaus, 18 January 1996   
 Three press articles by Willie Hofmeyr and Adv Dullah Omar, 1997   
    
3.8.3. Hansard extracts 1993-1996 (1 file)   
 Concern crime statistics,   
3.8.4. Articles and reports 1995-1997 (7 items)   
 Concern crime in Western Cape, crime against tourists, transition, gangsterism, Include two newsletters, SA Outlook June 1995, and Infospace, 1995, with articles about crime and violence   
 Authors of other items are:   
 Prof L Schlemmer   
 Peter Williams   
 CJB le Roux   
3.8.5. Publications and pamphlets 1958-1998 (9 items)   
 These are about gangs, causes of crime, prevention and rehabilitation and include:   
 The Director of Prisons, Union of South Africa:   
 Developments in the prevention of crime and treatment of offenders in the Union of South Africa during the five years period ended 30th June 1987, booklet, The Government Printer, Pretoria, 1958   
 Institute of Criminology, UCT:   
 Criminological statistics, document, compiled by Simon Fredericks and Dirk van Zyl Smit, Cape Town, 1984.   
 Violence on cinema, television and the streets, Mana Slabbert, 1981   
 Repetitive cycles, Analyses of socialisation and institutionalisation patterns and discussion of crime prevention, intervention and diversion strategies, Mana Slabbert, 1980   
 NICRO:   
 Gangs, The search for self-respect, with ICT, UCT, 1990   
 NIPILAR/Community Law Centre:   
 We wont be beaten, A guide to the Prevention of Family Violence Act, 1996   
 Embassy of South Africa in the Netherlands:   
 South Africa facing up to crime, South African Embassy Information Series no 2, 1997   
 South Africas white paper on safety and security, South African Embassy Information Series no 8, 1998   
 South African Institute of Race Relations (SAIRR):   
 Unshackling the crime fighters, Increasing private sector involvement in South Africas criminal justice system, Martin Schnteich, SAIRR, Johannesburg, 1999   
 Other:   
 Confronting crime, Innovating for safety, Interim report of the workshop, Cape Town September 9-13, 1995   
    
3.9. Peace initiatives and programmes   
3.9.1. Peace initiatives   
 As the violence increased initiatives were taken by a range of groups including the church, local organisations, street committees and political groupings. Some held meetings with government and warring parties. Letters were written and representations made to the authorities.   
3.9.1.1. Clippings 1988-1994 (2 files)   
 Reports on talks, negotiations, representations to the authorities, initiatives taken by political parties such as ANC and Inkatha, the Zulu monarchy, church groups and township representatives.   
3.9.1.2. Documents 1990-1992 (7 items)   
 Include:   
3.9.1.2.1 An account of events in the Vaal and Parys, undated author unknown circa 1985 
 Letter, memorandum from Winnie Mandela, ANC Womens League to the Minister of Law and Order   
 Memorandum, Urban Monitoring and Awareness Committee and others, 23 September 1991   
 Memorandum to the State President, from the delegation of church leaders who met with him, 28 August 1990   
 Memorandum to the Administrator and Town Clerk of Alexandra, from the Alexander Peace Forum and others, 26 March 1992   
 Report of the SACC crisis intervention team for March 1990, with attachments   
    
3.9.2. National Peace Accord   
 In September 1991, the ANC, Inkatha and the government signed the National Peace Accord.   
3.9.2.1. Clippings 1991-1995 (2 files)   
 These clippings report on negotiations, agreement, disagreement, peace monitoring, national peacekeeping and further negotiations with church and local involvement.   
3.9.2.2. Documents 1991 (8 items)   
 Include:   
 Draft copy of National Peace Accord   
 Press statement from national peace initiative, 24 July 1991   
 Minutes of a peace conference, 9 October 1991   
 Press release about peace indaba, 19 June 1991   
 Further press statements   
 Document about an ECC Peace festival, July 1991   
 IBIIR report, May 1991   
    
3.9.3. International hearing July 1992 (1 file)   
 This international hearing on political violence and the implementation of the National Peace Accord held in London was convened by Archbishop Trevor Huddleston, President of the British Anti-Apartheid Movement. Papers were presented by international and South African organisations and churches. Papers were presented on the National Peace Accord, the Goldstone Commission report, political assassinations, reef violence, massacres and hostels among others. The conference was addressed by Justice Goldstone. Documents include the objectives, a revised programme, a list of participants, a background resolution, a memorandum to the State President and several of the papers and reports presented at the hearing.   
 The list of participants include:   
 Human Rights Commission   
 Lawyers Commission for Civil Rights   
 Lawyers for Human Rights   
 South African Council of Churches   
3.9.4. Political parties 1991-1993 (1 file)   
 Most items are ANC press releases, some responding to statements by members of the National Party. There is a letter from the State President to Nelson Mandela expressing concern about actions planned by the ANC in Ciskei, dated 4 September 1992   
3.9.5. Hansard extracts 1991-1994 (8 items)   
 Questions and answers in Parliament   
3.9.6. Legislation 1992-1995 (2 items)   
 Government Gazette, legislation   
3.9.7. Pamphlets and brochures 1991-1993 (8 items)   
 Items include:   
 Campaign pamphlet for peace, 1993   
 National Peace Accord from the National Peace Convention, 14 September 1991   
 Guidelines for official church representation on peace accord structures, Let us all work for peace, Accent on peace, December 1993   
 Financial Mail Survey, April 1993   
 Challenge to churches, includes newspaper clippings, and monitor reports, 1991   
    
3.10. Commissions   
3.10.1. Harms Commission   
 The Harms Commission was appointed to investigate assassinations. The clippings file reveals large numbers of allegations. The Harms Commission came to the conclusion that there was insufficient proof for the allegations.   
3.10.1.1. Clippings 1989-1991 (6 files)   
 Reports on the self-confessed assassin Almond Nofomela and the establishment of the Harms Commission. Evidence and reports about numerous suspected assassinations and other undercover activities is included. There is also discussion on evidence, investigations and findings.   
3.10.1.2. Harms Commission report 1990 (1 item)   
 The report of the Commission of Inquiry into Certain Alleged Murders, Report of Hon Mr Justice LTC Harms, Government Printing, Pretoria, 1990   
3.10.1.3. Nofomela report 1990 (1 item)   
 Verslag van ondersoekkomitee insake bewerings van Almond Nofomela (report about Nofomelas allegations), copy, Adv TP McNally and others, with enclosures including letters, statements and news clippings, undated   
3.10.1.4. Documents and pamphlet 1990 (1 file)   
 Include:   
 Who lied? A discussion of the findings of the Harms Commission of Inquiry, Independent Board of Inquiry into Informal Repression (IBIIR), dedicated to Bheki Mlangeni whose courageous endeavours to find the truth resulted in his tragic death on February 15 1991   
 Press statements by IBIIR and Bureau of Information, press statement, author unknown, press statement, UN, all 1990   
 Reports and comments,   
 On success/failure, Black Sash   
 an End Conscription Campaign fact sheet on the Civil Co-operation Bureau   
 Hansard extracts   
    
3.10.2. Cillie Commission   
 The Cillie commission was appointed to inquire into the causes of widespread rioting.   
3.10.2.1. Clippings 1976-1977 (2 files)   
 Reports about incidents of rioting, submissions and testimony.   
    
3.10.3. Goldstone Commission   
 The Goldstone Commission of Inquiry regarding the Prevention of Public Violence and Intimidation was established in 1990.   
3.10.3.1. Clippings 1990-1995 (4 files)   
 The clippings start with the Sebokeng enquiry in 1990. Later clippings include a range of violent and covert activities. The Commission encountered criticism from all quarters.   
    
3.10.3.2. Reports of the Commission   
 Dates refer to the dates of the reports.   
3.10.3.2.1. Sebokeng, Boipatong, Lekoa, Sharpeville, Evaton 26 Mar 1990 (3 items)   
 Items include an internal report and list of reports.   
3.10.3.2.2. Events at Mooi River 19 Feb 1992   
3.10.3.2.3. Violence at the President Steyn Mine 20 Feb 1992   
3.10.3.2.4. Conduct of members of 32 Battalion at Phola Park 10 June 1992   
3.10.3.2.5. Violence at hostels 21 Sep 1992   
3.10.3.2.6. Acts of violence by the SAP in the Vaal area 27 Oct 1992   
3.10.3.2.7. The Bisho incident 29 Sep 1992   
3.10.3.2.8. Tokoza (Afrikaans), 17 Nov 1992   
 Report in Afrikaans.   
3.10.3.2.9. Taxi violence 4 Dec 1992   
 Report in Afrikaans.   
3.10.3.2.10. Mooi River 21 Dec 1992   
3.10.3.2.11. Third Interim Report 21 Dec 1992   
 Report in Afrikaans.   
3.10.3.2.12. Regulation of gatherings 15 Jan1993   
3.10.3.2.13. Violence in the taxi and minibus industry 23 Feb 1993   
3.10.3.2.14. Activities of APLA 15 Mar 1993   
3.10.3.2.15. Regulation of gatherings 28 Apr 1993   
3.10.3.2.16. Vryeweekblad allegations 27 May 1993   
3.10.3.2.17. SADF, front companies and Inkatha training in Caprivi 1 June 1993   
3.10.3.2.18. Events at the World Trade Centre 1 June 1993   
3.10.3.2.19. Events after funeral of Chris Hani 29 June 1993   
3.10.3.2.20. Curbing public violence and intimidation during election 11 Aug 1993   
3.10.3.2.21. Illegal importation of firearms and explosives 5 Oct 1993   
3.10.3.2.22. Violence at Mossel Bay 12 Oct 1993   
3.10.3.2.23. Fourth Interim Report 6 Dec 1993   
3.10.3.2.24. Public violence and intimidation at Crossroads 11 Nov 1993   
 In Commission folder   
3.10.3.2.25. Shooting incidents at Kathlehong 18 Jan 1994   
 In Commission folder   
3.10.3.2.26. Criminal violence within the SAP, KwaZulu Police, IFP 18 Mar 1994   
 In Commission folder   
3.10.3.2.27. Shooting incidents at centre of Johannesburg 21 Apr 1994   
 In Commission folder   
3.10.3.2.28. Attacks on SAP 21 Apr 1994   
 In Commission folder   
3.10.3.2.29. Attempted purchase of firearms by KwaZulu Government from Eskom 22 April 1994   
 In Commission folder   
3.10.3.2.30. Fifth Interim Report 30 May 1994   
 In Commission folder   
3.10.3.2.31. Taxi and minibus industry 26 Jul 1994   
 In Commission folder   
3.10.3.2.32. Attack on Power Park squatter camp 11 May 1994   
 In Commission folder   
3.10.3.2.33. Taxi and minibus industry in Queenstown 24 Aug 1994   
 In Commission folder   
3.10.3.2.34. Second Interim Report   
 Undated, c May 1992   
3.10.3.2.35. Mooi River, Interim report   
 Undated   
3.10.3.2.36. Mooi River   
 Undated   
3.10.3.2.37. President Steyn Mine   
 Undated   
3.10.3.2.38. Taxi violence   
 Undated   
3.10.3.3. Testimony, prevention of public violence 9 Jul 1992 (1 item)   
 Testimony of multinational panel.   
3.10.3.4. Recommendations 1993-1994 (2 items)   
 Recommendation follow-up series. Items are:   
 Recommending peace, no 1, November 1993   
 Marching to a different tune, no 2, April 1994   
3.10.3.5. Goldstone press releases and statements 1992-1993 (1 file)   
 The press releases and statements concern Commission work. There are two addresses by Justice Goldstone, an address in the Hague, another to the Cape Law Society.   
3.10.3.6. Documents 1990-1995 (1 file)   
 Miscellaneous items include:   
 ANC press releases   
 UN press release and notes   
 Hansard extracts   
 Proclamation for the Commission of Inquiry into Incidents at Sebokeng, Boipatong, Lekoa, Sharpeville and Evaton, 1990   
 Three articles about the Goldstone Commission, one unpublished   
    
3.11. General resources   
 These cover violence and political violence. Incidents of murder and other crimes that were not politically motivated are included.   
3.11.1. Clippings   
3.11.1.1. Violence 1987-1997 (5 files)   
 Reports on every type of violence are included.   
3.11.1.2. Sabotage and terrorism 1976-1979 (2 files)   
 These clippings cover the earlier years of the liberation movement. Notable types of incidents are bombing, explosions and arson.   
3.11.1.3. Protest and riots 1976-1979 (8 files)   
 These clippings cover the earlier years of protest.   
    
3.11.2. Publications, pamphlets and books 1962-1998 (3 boxes)   
 The subjects include violence, crime, case studies, international missions and hearings. Organisations and titles are:   
 Africa Watch:   
 South Africa, half-hearted reform, The official response to the rising tide of violence, Washington, May 1993   
 Algemene Christelijke Politiebond and others:   
 Violence in the Vaal, Report by a Dutch Violence Observation Mission to the Vaal Triangle in South Africa, with the Human Rights Commission, 1993   
 Shocking morals, The Vaal revisited, Report by the 2nd Dutch Violence Observation Mission to the Vaal Triangle in South Africa, 1994   
 Black Sash:   
 No blood on our hands, (book), Political violence in the Natal Midlands 1987-mid 1992, and the role of the state, white political parties and business, Anne Truluck, Pietermaritzburg, 1992   
 British Anti-Apartheid Movement:   
 Political violence in South Africa, Transkei Government input at the international hearing in London 1992, convened by the British AA-movement, Transkei governmental republication of AA conference print)   
 Catholic Institute of International Research:   
 South Africas police, From police state to democratic policing? Gavin Cawthra, London, 1992   
 Apartheids private army, (book), The rise of right-wing vigilantes in South Africa, Nicholas Haysom, London, 1986   
 Rule of fear, Human rights in South Africa, 1989   
 Spotlight on disinformation about violence in South Africa, Anthea J Jeffery, Spotlight publication 8/92, Braamfontein, October 1992.   
 Third force, The weight of evidence, George Ellis, Regional topic paper 92/3, November 1992   
 Forum on mass mobilisation, Anthea Jeffrey, 1991   
 Ceasefire Campaign:   
 Ceasefire, Report on the Ceasefire National Anti-militarisation Conference, 17-19 March 1995, Kengray, 1995   
 COSAWR:   
 State of war, (brochure), Apartheid South Africas decade of militarism, London and Amsterdam, c 1984   
 DESCOM:   
 Democratic movement under attack, A report on the State of Emergency, with the Detainees Parents Support Committee, July-September 1985   
 Hidden repression, Survey of 37 Transvaal organisations, 1983-1984   
 Dutch Anti-Apartheid Movement:   
 The crime of kidnapping, Abductions by South Africa from the Frontline States, based on testimonies during the hearing on abductions by the South African regime, Amsterdam, 16 December 1988, Karel Roskan and Boris Dittrich, 1990.   
 Human Awareness Program:   
 Militarisation, (dossier), South African Catholic Bishops Conference and the South African Council of Churches, Pretoria and Johannesburg, October 1986   
 Human Rights Commission:   
 Checkmate for apartheid, Special report on two years of destabilisation July 1990 to June 1992, 1992   
 Human rights and repression in South Africa, The apartheid machine grinds on, 1989   
 Obstacles to peace, the role of the KwaZulu police in the Natal conflict, with the Legal Resources Centre, Durban, 1992   
 Inkatha Institute:   
 And now will the agony end? Pietermaritzburg peace plan, Clarion Call, Special edition   
 International Defence and Aid Fund:   
 Repression and resistance in South Africa and Namibia, Review of 1988, London, 1989   
 IDASA:   
 Violence in Natal, counting the costs, assessing the future, 1990   
 Independent Board of Inquiry:   
 Before we were good friends, (brochure), An account and analysis of displacement in the East Rand Townships of Thokoza and Kathelong, Peace Action publication, April 1994   
 International Commission of Jurists:   
 Agenda for peace, An independent survey of the violence in South Africa, Geneva, 1992   
 Voting for peace, An independent assessment of the prospects for free and fair elections in South Africa, 1993   
 Signposts to peace, an independent survey of the violence in Natal, 1990   
 Republic of South Africa:   
 The national action plan for the promotion and protection of human rights, 1998   
 Father Tim Smith SJ, PACSA:   
 They have killed my children, (brochure), One community in conflict, 1983-1990, Pietermaritzburg, 1990   
 Independent Board of Enquiry:   
 Fortresses of fear, undated   
 Indicator:   
 Vir volk en vaderland, (booklet), A guide to the white right, Jannis Grobbelaar, Simon Bekker and Robert Evans, An Indicator South Africa Issue Focus, Durban, 1989   
 Capturing the event, conflict trends in the Natal region 1986-1992, 1992   
 Kairos:   
 Violations of human rights in South Africa 1983-1984, 1984   
 State control in South Africa, Eastern Cape, June 1986, Netherlands   
 Lawyers Committee for Civil Rights under Law:   
 South Africas death squads, A report by the Southern Africa Project, Washington DC, September 1990   
 Progressive Party of SA:   
 A rigid constitution, the decentralisation of government and the administration of justice, (brochure), A final report prepared for The Progressive Party of SA by a commission of experts, Molteno Report, Volume II, August 1962, Johannesburg   
 United Democratic Front and others:   
 Repression in a time of reform, A look at events in the Transvaal since August 1984, 1984   
 United Nations:   
 South Africas record of international terrorism, Tony Gifford, with SWAM and AAM, UN Centre against Apartheid, London, 1981   
 University of Cape Town:   
 Back to the laager, (book), The rise of white rightwing violence in South Africa, LEAP, Institute of Criminology, 1991   
 University of Natal:   
 Numbering the dead, Pattern in the Midlands violence, John Aitchinson   
 Schooling in the context of violence, Blade Nzimande, Education Policy Unit, Durban 1993   
 University of the Witwatersrand:   
 Report on the Rabie report, (brochure), An examination of security legislation in South Africa, Occasional papers 3, Centre for Applied Legal Studies, Johannesburg, March 1982.   
 Mark Anstey:   
 Practical peace making, A mediator's handbook, 1993   
 Jonas Ewald and Hkan Thrn:   
 Peace monitoring in South Africa, An evaluation of a co-operation between Swedish and South African organisations, 1994   
 Patrick Laurence:   
 Death squads, Apartheid's secret weapon, 1990   
 Barry Mthombothi:   
 Unrest in Natal, August 1985, (copy of brochure), With an introduction by Fatima Meer, November 1985   
 Johannes Rantete:   
 The third day of September, An eye-witness account of the Sebokeng Rebellion of 1984, 1984   
 Jan van Eck:   
 Eyewitness to unrest, South Africa, 1989   
 Other:   
 National Peace Accord, 1991   
 Political violence in South Africa A Press Clips Supplement, covering January 1980-July 1982   
 The South African security services, A Press Clips Supplement covering 1975-1982, 1982   
 A triumph for executive power, (article reprint), An examination of the Rabie Report and the Internal Security Act 74 of 1982, John Dugard, From the South African Law Journal, c 1982   
 Towards the new Natal, Sunday Tribune Special Section, 14 October 1990   
    
3.11.3. Reports and papers (1 file)   
 Some papers are undated. Papers include:   
 Consolidated case reports on the Reef violence, prepared for the International Commission of Jurists, David Everatt, CASE, Johannesburg, 1992   
 Pietermaritzburgs refugees, A profile, John Vaughn, Centre for Adult Education, University of Natal, June 1990.   
 Durban unrest, Township turmoil, A special report by Revd. Sol Jacob, South African Council of Churches, Johannesburg, August 1995.   
 Inkatha, Black liberation or national reaction? CRIC   
 Memorandum on Natal violence, compiled by the National Association of Democratic Lawyers, Durban, 1990   
 Authors:   
 William Beinart   
 Catherine Campbell   
 E G Friedenberg   
 Graham Hayes   
 John Kane-Berman   
 Lawrence Schlemmer   
 Ari Sitas   
 Lloyd Vogelman and Graeme Simpson   
    
TRUTH AND RECONCILIATION COMMISSION   
 The Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) was established with the passing of the National Unity and Reconciliation Bill. This was preceded by consultations with submissions and proposals, conferences and debates.   
    
 Kairos researched and produced reports and databases for the TRC.   
 These can be found in 2. Detentions and trials. The references are:   
 2.2.2. Kairos TRC database of torture and deaths   
 2.2.4.1. Kairos TRC reports, about torture and torturers   
    
 Kairos recorded a number of the hearings at the TRC. The Kairos Special Report Tapes are seperated and a list is available at Historical Papers, The Library.   
    
 Subjects include police, defence force, Civil Co-operation Bureau, ANC, APLA, Inkatha, third force, Natal Midlands, trials, youth, media, church, amnesty, security services, reconciliation, reparations, forgiveness and truth.   
 Dates refer to the dates on the material. The material is predominantly from 1977 to 2002 with a few earlier items. There are three items from the South African Conciliation Commission of the Anglo Boer/South African War, published in the early 1900s.   
 This material contains some submissions, decisions, transcripts and amnesty applications, but is predominantly a research and reference resource. Reports, publications, transcripts of speeches, newspaper clippings, conference papers and journal articles deal with the ethical, historical and political context of the TRC.   
 Unpublished material may only be quoted with the permission of the author.   
    
 Three main categories of material are:   
 Clippings consist of popular newspaper and magazine articles   
 Documents include organisational newsletters, Hansard extracts, published and unpublished reports, Amnesty International press alerts and notes.   
 Publications include government issues of tourist and investment brochures, conference and study papers, publications issued by non-governmental and political groups, copies of legislation, handbooks, publications from international, anti-apartheid organisations and churches.   
    
4.1. Establishment of the TRC   
 The TRC was established with the passing of the National Unity and Reconciliation Bill. This was preceded by consultations with submissions and proposals, conferences and debates. Amnesty and the validity of amnesty granted by the previous government was debated. This section contains material about the period leading to the establishment of the TRC. Also see 2.5.2. Amnesty.   
4.1.1. Submissions and proposals 1994 (11 items)   
 Items include a copy of a Ministry of Justice information publication. Parties who made submissions include:   
 Legal Resources Centre, Cape Town, 1994   
 Albie Sachs, 1994   
 Trauma Centre for Victims of Violence and Torture, 1994   
 Research Institute on Christianity in South Africa, 1994   
 Church leaders   
 ANC   
    
4.1.2. Conferences 1992-1994 (9 items)   
 Conferences include:   
 South African Conference on Truth and Reconciliation, IDASA, 29 July 1994   
 Making ends meet: Reconciliation and Reconstruction in SA, World Trade Centre, 18 August 1994   
 Also includes inaugural lecture by Kader Asmal, 1992   
4.1.3. Bills 1990-1997 (18 items)   
 Comprise copies of bills at various stages of readings, including the Indemnity Act of 1990 passed by the previous Nationalist government to grant indemnity to people convicted of crimes motivated by political reasons. Also included are the National Unity and Reconciliation Bill and bills defining the powers of TRC investigating officers.   
4.1.4. Clippings 1991-1996 (1 file)   
 News reports about people applying for amnesty and amnesty decisions. Also includes Amnesty International releases concerning the previous governments granting of amnesty to members of the SADF.   
4.1.5. Documents 1992-1997 (14 items)   
 Items include:   
 Statements about the National Unity and Reconciliation Bill   
 An explanatory memorandum about the bill   
 Statements by J H Coetzee, a former Minister of Justice, and A Omar, about the Bill   
 Parliamentary memoranda about debates   
 Press statements by various organisations, these comment on the earlier Amnesty Bill as well as the Bill for National Unity and Reconciliation   
 Documents from Lawyers for Human Rights, include letters and press statement about released prisoners and the general amnesty declared by the Nationalist Government in 1992   
 Human Rights Watch letter to President Nelson Mandela dated August 1995   
    
4.2. The Commission   
 Information about the people, structure and timetable of the TRC.   
4.2.1. Documents 1997-1998 (1 file)   
 Includes information pamphlets on the TRC and the Committee on Amnesty. A draft paper includes detail of the structure and the history of the TRC with an acknowledgement to Kairos.   
    
4.3. Submissions and hearings   
 These consist of documents from individuals and organisations, submission papers and transcripts of hearings.   
 This contains documents submitted to the TRC, letters, newspaper reports, discussion and other papers, legal documents such as affidavits, transcripts, and supporting documentation such as organisations internal minutes and reports.   
4.3.1. Armed forces   
4.3.1.1. Azanian Peoples Liberation Army Oct 1997 (4 items)   
 Pan Africanist Congress/APLA Hearings. Includes transcript and summary of hearings.   
4.3.1.2. SADF and SAP Oct 1997 (4 files)   
 South African Defence Force and South African Police, items include:   
 Transcripts of hearings.   
 Submission by Gen JV van der Merwe   
 Letter from Gen van der Merwes attorney to the TRC, 15 May 1997   
 SANDF Nodal Point, 2 submissions   
 Transcript of discussion between TRC panel and Gen Meiring   
 Adress by Gen Meiring   
 Introductory remarks on submission   
 Article on the impact of the TRC on the SANDF   
 Papers by four former chiefs of the SADF presented at an SADF symposium on 30 August 1997   
4.3.1.3. Umkhonto we Sizwe October (MK) 1997 (2 items)   
 Includes second submission and transcripts of hearings   
    
4.3.2. Church/faith hearings Sept 1997 (1 item)   
 Status report, 8 September 1997   
4.3.3. Conscription 23 Jul 1997 (1 item)   
4.3.4. Health sector Jun 1997 (3 files)   
 Includes submission by the SADF South African Medical Services.   
4.3.5. Human rights abuses in Natal Midlands 23 Jul 1996   
 This submission by Prof JJW Aitchison, University of Natal, covers 1960-1963.   
4.3.6. Human rights violations 27 May 1997 (1 item)   
 Submission by the Human Rights Committee of South Africa.   
4.3.7. Independent Newspapers 1997 (1 item)   
    
4.3.8. Political parties   
4.3.8.1. African National Congress (ANC) 1996-1997 (2 files)   
4.3.8.2. Democratic Party (DP) 22 Aug 1996 (1 item)   
4.3.8.3. Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) 5 Sept 1996 (1 item)   
4.3.8.4. National Party (NP) 1996-1997 (2 files)   
 Includes submissions by past president FW de Klerk, questions and responses.   
4.3.8.5. Vryheidsfront 6 Feb 1997 (1 item)   
    
4.3.9. Prisons July 1997 (3 items)   
4.3.10. Relevance of economic, social, cultural rights 18 Mar 1997 (1 item)   
 Submission by several non-governmental organisations. These include:   
 Community Law Centre   
 Legal Resources Centre   
 Development Action Group   
 Black Sash   
 NGO National Coalition   
4.3.11. State Security Council 14 Oct 1997 (4 files)   
 Items include:   
 Transcript of hearing   
 Statements by RF (Pik) Botha, Roelf Meyer, Leon Wessels, AJ Vlok.   
 Unusual items are two files of Top Secret or 'Uiters Geheim' documents, comprise 63 pages that include planning for covert operations, the 'third force' and strategy, planning and reports, document dates range from 1979 to 1989   
 Paper by Brigadier CA Fraser, Lessons Learnt from the Past Revolutionary Wars   
 The second file contains six items with similar uiters geheim material including agendas and minutes, dates ranging from 1985 to 1986.   
4.3.12. Survivors perceptions of the TRC 7 April 1998 (1 item)   
 With suggestions for final report Submission by the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation and the Khulumani Support Group.   
4.3.13. Youth 22 May 1977 (2 items)   
 Transcript of hearings and Muslim Youth Movement submission.   
    
4.4. Amnesty   
4.4.1. Applications, hearings and decisions   
 Dates refer to the dates of the material.   
4.4.1.1. African National Congress (ANC)   
4.4.1.1.1 Max Coleman, decision 1999 (1 item)   
    
4.4.1.2. Azanian People's Liberation Army (APLA)   
4.4.1.2.1. St James Church massacre Jul 1997 (5 items)   
 Acts committed in 1993. Includes transcript of hearing.   
4.4.1.2.2. Amy Biehl murder Jul 1997 (6 items)   
 Act committed in 1993. Includes transcript of hearing.   
    
4.4.1.3. Conservative Party (CP)   
4.4.1.3.1. Clive Derby-Lewis, Janusz Walus 1999 (1 item)   
 Murder of the leader of the Communist Party, Chris Hani, on 10 April 1993. Includes decision.   
    
4.4.1.4. South African Police (SAP)   
4.4.1.4.1. William Liebenberg 1997 (2 items)   
 For acts committed in the period 1986-1987. Application and declaration.   
4.4.1.4.2. Jeffrey Benzien 1997 (4 items)   
 For acts committed in the period 1986-1990. Includes transcript of hearing, application, declaration and decision.   
4.4.1.4.3. Daniel Siebert 11 Sept 1997 (1 item)   
 For assault and subsequent death of Steve Biko. Decision.   
4.4.1.4.4. Paul van Vuuren Sept 1997 (1 item)   
 Eighteen acts including the Moutse bomb blast, the Ribeiro conspiracy, several murders, bombings and assaults. Decision.   
    
4.4.1.5. Other organisations   
 Include United Democratic Front (UDF) and Paarl Youth Congress (PAYCO) members.   
4.4.1.5.1. Necklace murder 7 Jul 1997 (1 item)   
 Necklacing is the act of placing a petrol-soaked tyre around the victims neck and setting it alight. Act committed in Paarl, Western Cape in 1986 by a member of the UDF and PAYCO. Transcript of hearing.   
4.4.1.5.2. Murder, housebreaking, theft of firearms 7 Jul 1997 (1 item)   
 At Vlakkeveld, Paarl in 1986 by members of PAYCO. Application, judgement, petition, hearings record included.   
    
4.4.2. Media releases 1997-2000 (4 files)   
 These report on amnesty applications with applicant names and TRC decisions.   
4.4.3. TRC Amnesty Reports 1997 (1 file)   
 These were sourced from the TRC website and give the full decision and reasons.   
    
4.4.4. Internet reports 1996-1999 (4 files)   
 Updates distributed to subscribers using e-mail. These provide a record of proceedings, statements and decisions by the TRC.   
4.4.5. Clippings 1997-1999 (1 file)   
 Reports about amnesty applications including police and right-wing applicants and Adriaan Vlok (previously Minister of Law and Order). Opinions on disclosure and the amnesty process. Steve Biko, Ashley Kriel, the Vlakplaas murders are mentioned.   
4.4.6. Kairos Special Report Tapes Jan 1997-Mar 1998   
 A detailed list of these tapes is available from Historical Papers, The Library. Some of the hearings include:   
 APLA, SADF, SAP, MK, Security Council hearings   
 Vlakplaas, Dirk Coetzee, Ascaris, Joe Mamasella   
 Civil Co-operation Bureau   
 Kwazulu/Natal   
 Trustfeed and UDF/IFP conflict   
 Nelspruit landmine deaths and massacre of children   
 Craig Williamson   
 Ribeiro murders   
 Murder of Steve Biko   
 Kondile murder, Pepco Three, Cradock Four, Guguletu Seven   
 Police applications for amnesty, Eugene de Kock, Brian Mitchell, Benzien, Liebenberg, Gribeneau   
 Winnie Mandela   
 Effects of solitary confinement   
 Passbooks, hostel system   
    
4.5. TRC reports and articles   
4.5.1. Final TRC report 1996-2000 (5 items)   
 Include:   
 Findings and conclusions, Volume 5 Chapter 6 of report   
 Speech of Archbishop Desmond Tutu at the handing over of the TRC report, 29 October 1998   
 Proposal, Final Report, proposed outline, 30 May 1997   
 Proceedings brought by Mr FW de Klerk, court actions to prevent publication in whole or part,   
 SA Institute of Race Relations 1999/2000 Survey   
 Interim report, draft, 1996   
4.5.2. TRC Research Department reports 1997 (1 item)   
 Include:   
 Drafts for discussion   
 Report on train violence, 16 September 1997   
 Two draft discussion documents on truth   
 Draft discussion document, Moral and conceptual foundations   
4.5.3. Statements and meetings 1996-1998 (12 items)   
 Include public debates, conference papers, briefings and statements by members of the TRC.   
 Include:   
 Dr Alex Boraine:   
 Justice in cataclysm, Criminal tribunals in the wake of mass violence. Alternatives and adjuncts to criminal prosecutions, 21 July 1996   
 The TRC and human rights journalism in South Africa, address, Johannesburg, 3 October 1997   
 Can truth telling promote reconciliation?, Beyond racism, Brazil, South Africa and the United States in the 21st century, March 1998   
 Pumla Gobodo-Madikizela, Committee member:   
 Re-enactment of old identities and implications for reconciliation, read at the 40th annual convention of the Institute of Personnel Management, Sun City, 21-23 October 1996   
 Rev. Dr KEM Mgojo:   
 After the TRC, can reconciliation come to KwaZulu Natal? Cry beloved country, cry, Breakfast briefing, Durban, 7 November 1997   
 Willem Verwoerd:   
 Justice after apartheid? Reflections on the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission, paper delivered at the Fifth International Conference on Ethics and Development, Globalization, Self-determination and Justice in Development, Madras, India, 22-29 January 1997   
 Glenda Wildschut:   
 Abuse of power, victims of abuse understanding our past, a way to creating a future, paper presented at the 9th International Symposium on Victimology; Amsterdam, 25-29 August 1997   
 TRC public meetings:   
 Panel discussion held at UCT, 24 January 1997   
 Forum on reconstruction and economic justice, 19 March 1997   
 A public discussion on the just war debate and reconciliation, 6 May 1997   
 Sixth seminar, Perpetrators, 28 May 1997   
 Pubic discussion, Transforming society through reconciliation: myth or reality, Cape Town, 12 March 1998   
4.5.4. Articles 1996-1998 (13 items)   
 Written by members of the TRC.   
 Include:   
 Wilhelm Verwoerd:   
 Three perspectives on amnesty, justice and the TRC, first draft, not for publication, Cape Town,   
 Continuing the discussion: Reflections from within the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, Current Writing, Text and Reception in Southern Africa, Volume 8 (2), p 66-85, October 1996   
 Truth and the TRC?, discussion document and two drafts, 1997   
 Democratisation and the TRC in South Africa   
 Charles Villa-Vicencio:   
 Truth and reconciliation: In tension and unity from coexistence to reconciliation: The TRC: A step along the way, Yale University, 8-9 February 1998   
    
4.6. Reparations   
4.6.1. Clippings 1997-2002 (1 file)   
 Subjects include interim relief, setting up a fund for victims, allocation for reparation in government budget, compensation.   
4.6.2. Documents 1995-1998 (6 items)   
 Include documents on policy framework, a ranking opinion poll for categories of human rights violations, a TRC collection of media and articles concerning victim support groups and Khulumani, and a TRC publication, A Summary of Reparation and Rehabilitation Policy.   
    
4.7. Resources   
 Kairos resources covered the   
4.7.1. Analysis of the TRC 1995-2000 (14 items)   
 Articles analysing the TRC and its working, and specific hearings and participants.   
 Include:   
 Andre du Toit, University of Cape Town (UCT):   
 Philosophical perspectives on the Truth and Reconciliation Commission? Some preliminary notes and fragments   
 Brandon Hamber:   
 The burdens of truth, an evaluation of the psychological support services and initiatives undertaken by the South African TRC, American Imaga Volume 55, No 1, p9-28, 1998   
 Do sleeping dogs lie? The psychological implications of the TRC in South Africa, Seminar no 5, 1995   
 Ian Liebenburg, Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC):   
 The Truth and Reconciliation Commission in South Africa, Context, future and some imponderables, Pretoria   
 Die waarheids- en versoeningskommissie in Suid-Afrika en die implikasies daarvan in n Suid-Afrikaanse historikerstreit en eietydse geskiedskrywing   
 Ian Liebenburg, HSRC and Rocklyn Williams, South African Defence Secretariat:   
 Of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission on the SANDF, 13 November 1996   
 Louise Stack, Centre for Policy Studies:   
 The State Security Council, the courts and the TRC, Indicator South Africa Political Monitor, p 19-22, 10 May 1996   
 Other:   
 Eugene de Kock, Apartheids crusader, interview, author unknown, undated   
    
4.7.2. Reconciliation and reparation   
4.7.2.1. Clippings 1996-2002 (1 file)   
 Articles about reconciliation and apology, with several articles quoting Bishop Tutu, who headed the TRC. The declaraion of commitment and other initiatives for reconciliation and apology for racism are reported.   
4.7.2.2. Articles 1994-2000 (13 items)   
 Include:   
 Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation:   
 Reflecting on truth, Has the media coverage of the TRC changed the way the public sees itself, its history and its responsibility? Brandon Hamber, 5 September 1998   
 What is this thing called reconciliation? Brandon Hamber and Hugo van der Merwe, 15 September 1998   
 Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation and Catholic Institute for International Relations:   
 From truth to transformation: South Africas TRC, Brandon Hamber and Steve Kibble, 17 September 1998   
 Truth and Reconciliation Commission:   
 Dont blame me, I just live here: Political accountability, moral responsibility and reconciliation, Charles Villa-Vicencio, 21 November 1997   
 Beth Goldblatt and Sheila Meintjes:   
 Dealing with the aftermath: Sexual violence and the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, 1997   
 Other:   
 Truth: The road to reconciliation? Brandon Hamber, Contilevers, First quarter 1997, Volume 3, p 5-30   
 Notes on opening of Anne Frank-Mayibuye Centre, includes summary of Nelson Mandela address, 1994   
4.7.3. Truth and justice 1996-1999 (3 files)   
 Items include:   
 University of California:   
 Restorative justice in political transitions? Lessons from South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission, Bronwyn Leebaw   
 H Russel Botman:   
 Die etiek van die dader in die waarheid en versoeningsproses in Suid-Afrika   
 Father Michael Lapsley:   
 Learning the truth   
 JJ Llewellyn and R Howse:   
 Institutions for restorative justice: The South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission as a model for dealing with conflicts of the past, draft, 19 January 1998   
 Colleen Scott:   
 Truth and reality, the TRC in South Africa, draft, 11 August 1997   
 Humanity on trial? 16 November 1997   
 Other:   
 A state of denial: White South Africans attitudes to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, Gunnar Theissen, Transitional Justice Project, University of the Western Cape and Brandon Hamber, Transition and Reconciliation Unit, Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, Indicator South Africa Political Monitor, p8-18   
 Gender-neutral truth, a reality shamefully distorted, Ilze Olckers, p61-67, Agenda 31, 1996   
 Stories of silence: women, truth and reconciliation, Ingrid Owens, p66-72, Agenda 30, 1996   
 The Promotion of National Unity and Reconciliation Act, the Constitution and International Law, Ziyad Motala, Comparative and International Law Journal of Southern Africa, p338-362, Volume 28 no 3, 1995   
 Row over Jewish article on collaborators, Electronic Mail and Guardian: 1 April 1997   
 Yutar and holy disbelief, Electronic Mail and Guardian: 1 April 1997   
    
4.7.4. International comparisons   
 Articles and reports about other countries experiences of human rights abuses and the aftermath of oppressive regimes and political violence. Also includes material about the establishment of an international tribunal for war crimes.   
4.7.4.1. Clippings 1990-1999 (1 file)   
 Reports of other countries' human rights violations, truth reconciliation and justice. The need for an international court for human rights abuses by oppressive governments is discussed.   
4.7.4.2. Documents 1990-2000 (2 files)   
 Include conference papers and articles on the effects of oppression and political violence, the processes in the change of regime and the results in the aftermath. Countries and regions mentioned include Yugoslavia, Hungary, Chile, Brazil, Middle East, Latin America, Eastern Europe. Decolonisation and the occupation by Germany during the Second World War are also discussed.   
 Include:   
 Unisa Latin American Report:   
 Living with the legacy of impunity: Lessons for South Africa about truth, justice and crime in Brazil, Brandon Hamber, Report 13 (2) July to December 1997   
 J Benomar:   
 Coming to terms with the past: How emerging democracies cope with a history of human rights violations, paper for Amnesty International Conference on Political Killings, Netherlands, 4-6 September 1992   
 Michael P Scharf:   
 The case for a permanent international truth commission, p375-407   
 R Sieder:   
 Memory, identity and truth; Rebuilding the moral community in Guatemala, paper for conference, Burying the past: Justice, forgiveness and reconciliation in the politics of South Africa, Guatemala, East Germany and Northern Ireland, Oxford, 14-16 September   
    
4.7.5. Parliament   
 Speeches from politicians and questions in Parliament.   
4.7.5.1. Speeches 1994-1999 (6 items)   
 Copies of speeches by Nelson Mandela, Thabo Mbeki and Carl Niehaus.   
4.7.5.2. Hansard extracts 1992-1999 (1 file)   
 Early items cover the Nationalist Governments Indemnity Bill, releases of political prisoners (including lists of names). Also includes questions on the National Reconciliation Bill and later questions about amnesty.   
    
4.7.6. Church and religion   
4.7.6.1. Clippings and news releases 1995-1998 (1 file)   
 On reconciliation, Bishop Tutu and the TRC, forgiveness and acknowledging responsibility.   
4.7.6.2. Documents 1994-1997 (2 files)   
 Consist of programmes for reconciliation, statements, reports, campaigns and forgiveness and theological issues.   
 Include:   
 Copy of open letter to ministers in SA (in Afrikaans), signed by Beyers Naude among others.   
 Newsletter of the TRC, Religious response, July 1995   
 Funding application for a campaign in the Western Cape, January-December 1996   
 Articles by Beyers Naude, IWC van Wyk, TS Maluleke, Gerald West, WJ Everett, Harald A Winkler and Laurie Nathan, DJ Smit   
    
4.7.7. Authors and essays   
4.7.7.1. Book reviews and abstracts 1997-2000 (1 file)   
 Include reviews of books by Bishop Desmond Tutu, Antjie Krog, FW de Klerk and a book of interviews of Jewish activists, edited by Immanuel Suttner.   
4.7.7.2. Documents 1996-2000 (1 file)   
 Material is about authors and includes copies of their work in the form of reports and personal reflections of the TRC. There are items written by Antjie Krog, William Kentridge and Carl Niehaus.   
    
4.7.8. Conferences and meetings 1988-2000 (22 items)   
 Include:   
 Agenda for Peace Conference:   
 Three papers, Evangelische Akademie Locum Gernika, October 1998   
 AHRA Conference:   
 The case for prosecution of apartheid criminals in Canada, M Hamalengwa, 1988   
 CSVR Seminar on Crime and the Media:   
 Crime and representation, Claudia Braude, Johannesburg, 1 November 1997   
 International Conference on The TRC: Commissioning the Past:   
 Burying the past: Justice, forgiveness and reconciliation in the politics of South Africa, Guatemala, East Germany and Northern Ireland, The South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission, Some guiding principles, Justice, amnesty and reconciliation, Charles Villa-Vicencio, Oxford University, 14-16 September 1998   
 Conference on Comparative Peace Processes in Latin America:   
 In pursuit of justice and reconciliation: Contributions of truth telling, Priscilla B Hayner, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, 13-14 March 1997, Washington DC, revised 26 August 1997   
 Justice at the core of Reconciliation, Conference of European Justice and Peace Commissions:   
 Rebuilding societies in crisis, Prague 1995   
    
4.7.9. Historical context   
 These items provide additional context about oppression and resistance in South Africa with information about the concentration camps in the Anglo-Boer/South African War and the Black Consciousness movement.   
4.7.9.1. Anglo-Boer South/African War1905 (4 items)   
 Conciliation Committee   
 Include:   
 South African Conciliation Committee:   
 The official report of the concentration amps   
 List of names and addresses of the South African Conciliation Committee   
 The treatment of the South African natives   
 Aims and methods of the Conciliation Committee   
4.7.9.2. Black Consciousness 1996-1999 (2 items)   
 Include:   
 Mamphela Ramphele:   
 The importance of the black consciousness movement in the history and present of South Africa   
    
4.7.10. General TRC resources   
 Material includes reports from the media, research articles, special issues of journals and magazines, with some material printed from the Internet.   
4.7.10.1. KAIROS clippings dossier 1997 (3 files)   
 This dossier is in its original order and reflects press comment and perspectives during the hearings. It includes cartoons and comment and editorial about perpetrators, reparations and amnesty. Other items include a copy of a psychologists report on J Benzien, reports about APLA, MK, and the Heidelberg tavern massacre. The categories include SADF, generals, police amnesty seekers, Botha-Vlok-Wessels-Meyer, Winnie Mandela   
4.7.10.2. Clippings compilations 1994-1996 (6 volumes)   
 Bound volumes arranged by date.   
4.7.10.3. Track Two Dec 1997 (1 file)   
 Issued by the Centre for Conflict Resolution, it contains the full text of several articles relating to the TRC, justice and peace. The writers are Melissa Baumann (editor), Laurie Nathan, Andries Odendaal, Fiona Ross, Craig Spies, Ampie Muller, Russel Botman, Howard Zehr, Jurgen Gottschlich, Tom Winslow, Advocate Richard Penwill, Craig Arendse, Trudy de Ridder, Anthea Garman, Sally Schramm. There are interviews with Father Michael Lapsley, Gerhard Koornhof (NP) and Willie Hofmeyer (ANC).   
4.7.10.4. Truth Talk Jul 1998 (1 file)   
 The official newsletter of the TRC with the full text of several articles, mostly consisting of interviews with members of the TRC   
4.7.10.5. Special issues 1994-1999 (8 items)   
 From SIM, CIIR, DSAForum, Human Rights Quarterly, South African Outlook, Mayibuye. Some items are photostat copies.   
4.7.10.6. Clippings 1994-2002 (44 files)   
 The subjects cover the full scope of the TRC with editorials, daily reports, comment and letters from readers.   
4.7.10.7. Documents 1993-2000 (2 files)   
 Include:   
 Brandon Hamber:   
 How should we remember? Issues to consider when establishing commissions and structures for dealing with the past, Belfast, Northern Ireland, 8-9 June 1998   
 Repairing the irreparable: Dealing with double-binds of making reparations for crimes of the past, London, 14-16 September 1998   
 Mental Health Policy Issues for South Africa:   
 Violence, power and mental health policy in twentieth century South Africa, Alex Butchart, Brandon Hamber, Martin Terre Blanche and Mohamed Seedat, p 239-262, Cape Town, 1998   
 Graeme Simpson:   
 Truth recovery or McCarthyism revisited?: An evaluation of the Stasi Records Act with reference to the South African experience, 1994   
 Michelle Parlevliet, University of Amsterdam:   
 Dealing with a legacy of gross human rights violations, doctoral thesis, Department of International Relations and Public International Law   
    
CONSTITUTION   
 Under apartheid, blacks were excluded from national elections The Bantu Homelands Constitution Act in 1971 gave the government the authority to confer independence on territories identified as black homelands and blacks were expected to exercise their voting right in their homeland. In 1984, the Tricameral Parliament was introduced. This resulted in the establishment of the House of Delegates and the House of Representatives for Indian and Coloured South Africans respectively. These bodies had very limited powers.   
    
 In February 1990, President FW de Klerk announced the unbanning of political parties such as the African National Congress and the Pan Africanist Congress. Parties across the full spectrum of political backgrounds met to draw up a new constitution for the country in the negotiating forum, the Convention for a Democratic South Africa (CODESA). On the 8th of May 1996, this was adopted by the Government which had been elected in the first democratic election in 1994.   
    
 The material does not refer to all the constitutional changes prior to 1994, but rather concentrates on the development of the 1996 Constitution.   
 Unpublished material may only be quoted with the permission of the author.   
 The material dates from 1970 to 2001. Dates refer to the dates on the material.   
 The papers have been divided into four main categories under subject headings, these are:   
 Clippings which include popular newspaper and magazine articles   
 Documents include pamphlets concerning the Vote No campaign, journal articles about constitutional reform, papers delivered at conferences and Hansard extracts   
 Publications include government issued material and published reports and analyses   
 Legislation contains working drafts and published Acts in respect of constitutional reform   
5.1. Tricameral Parliament   
5.1.1. Clippings 1982-1989 (3 files)   
 Include clippings regarding the run-up to the 2nd November 1983 referendum, the Vote No campaign, the unrest in the run-up to the election of candidates for the two new Houses and the functioning of the Houses thereafter   
5.1.2. Documents 1982-1985 (4 files)   
 Includes pamphlets opposing the amended constitution that would introduce the Tricameral Parliament; Hansard excerpts; journal articles about the new constitution and reports.   
 Include:   
 Lawrence Schlemmer and David Welsh:   
 South Africa's constitutional and political prospects, undated   
 Technical Committee, Constitutional Affairs:   
 Report of the Committee for Constitutional Affairs of the President's Council, 1983   
 Report on South African Constitutional Bill, 1983   
5.1.3. Legislation 1983-1990 (13 items)   
 Items include:   
 Constitution Bill   
 Constitution Amendment Bills   
 National States Constitution Amendment Bill   
 Legal Aid Amendment Bill   
 Elections and Identification Amendment Bill   
 Constitution Amendment Act   
5.1.4. Publications 1983-1988 (5 items)   
 Include material regarding local authorities, regional services councils, constitution and systems of government   
    
5.2. Legal status of the Government   
5.2.1. Clippings 1986-1987 (1 file)   
 The South African governments legal status is discussed with opinions from academics and the church among others.   
5.2.2. Documents 1977-1987 (2 files)   
 Contains papers delivered at conferences and seminars where the legitimacy of the South African Government and apartheid was discussed, and an ANC statement made in Nigeria, 13 August 1984.   
    
5.3. Development of the new Constitution   
5.3.1. Clippings 1987-1997 (9 files)   
 Subjects reported on include constitutional reform, comparisons to other constitutions, negotiations, CODESA and the interim and final constitution.   
5.3.2. Documents 1987-1996 (5 files)   
 Include journal articles about aspects of the new post-apartheid constitution including the rights of women, responses to constitutional proposals and alternative constitutional frameworks. There are policy discussion papers of the African National Congress and Democratic Party.   
 Items include:   
 ANC:   
 The structure of a constitution for a democratic South Africa, 8 April 1991   
 Black Sash:   
 You and the constitution, October 1992   
 Democratic Party:   
 Democratic proposals, 23 August 1991   
 Other:   
 Opening address by FW de Klerk at the National Party congress, 4 September 1991   
5.3.3. Legislation 1987-1997 (15 items)   
 Include a document about the planning and preparation of a new Constitution, a working draft of the new Constitution and the final Constitution as adopted on 8 May 1996   
5.3.4. Publications 1990-1997 (8 items)   
 Include material about fundamental rights under the new Constitution, articles from the African National Congress about the Constitution and the role of civil society in the transition.   
    
5.4. Constitutional Court   
5.4.1. Clippings 1991-1999 (2 files)   
 Include reports about the appointment of the Constitutional Court judges, interviews with appointed judges and constitutional issues referred to the Constitutional Court.   
5.4.2. Documents 1991-1996 (7 items)   
 Include:   
 The Constitutional Court judgement in the case brought by the Azanian Peoples Organisation (AZAPO) and others against the State to have the declaration of the Promotion of National Unity and Reconciliation Act unconstitutional   
 Journal articles   
 Article on President Nelson Mandelas speech at the inauguration of the Constitutional Court   
 Copies of papers delivered at the Conference on a Constitutional Court for South Africa, 1-3 February 1991   
5.4.3. Legislation 1995 (2 items)   
 Include the Constitutional Court Complementary Bill and Select Committee amendments to Constitutional Court Complementary Bill.   
    
5.5. Bill of Rights   
5.5.1. General 1989-1996 (1 item)   
 Consists of a bound file of newspaper clippings, magazine and journal articles and publications about aspects of the Bill of Rights   
5.5.2. African National Congress (ANC) 1990 -1993 (1 item)   
 A bound file of newspaper clippings and articles cover the ANCs proposed Bill of Rights and include copies of its Bill of Rights with responses to the Nationalist Governments proposed Bill of Rights   
5.5.3. Government and National Party 1989-1993 (1 item)   
 A bound file of clippings and articles about Government proposals for a Bill of Rights, reaction to the proposals by other parties including religious and human rights organisations and recommendations of the Law Commission.   
5.5.4. Democratic Party (DP) 1993 (1 item)   
 Bound newspaper articles report on the Bill of Rights proposed by the DP.   
5.5.5. Inkatha and KwaZulu-Natal 1990-1993 (1 item)   
 A bound file containing a copy of the KwaZulu Natal Bill of Rights, a copy of a working document titled Inkatha Declaration and a copy of the Constitution of KwaZulu-Natal   
    
5.6. Traditional authorities   
5.6.1. Clippings 1994-2000 (2 files)   
 Clippings on the Congress of Traditional Leaders of South Africa (Contralesa), the monarchy and other traditional leaders, their powers, payment and legitimacy.   
5.6.2. Documents 1994-1995 (18 items)   
 Subjects include legislation, powers of traditional leaders and their inclusion in the new constitution.   
 Organisations include:   
 Department of Constitutional Development   
 Institute for Local Governance and Development   
 Bills:   
 Council for Traditional Leaders Bill   
 Remuneration of Traditional Leaders Bill   
 Papers and organisations:   
 Proceedings of conference, Accra, September 1994   
 African Studies and Van Vollenhoven Institute   
 University of Durban-Westville   
 Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung seminar report   
 Collaborative studies by Universities of North, Potchefstroom, Natal, Netherlands   
 Rhodes University   
 University of Stellenbosch   
 University of the Witwatersrand   
 Court document, Notice of motion for amendment to the Constitution   
 Contralesa Constitution   
 CW Manona on Transitional Local Councils   
 Barbara Oomen, Holland, MA thesis, Netherlands   
    
HUMAN RIGHTS   
 Prior to the 1994 elections, the Nationalist government applied the policy of apartheid or separate development with whites holding both political and economic paper. Apartheid was enforced through legislation such as the Group Areas Act.   
    
 All Kairos campaigns had a human rights grounding, campaigns that relate to this sub-inventory are:   
 1976 Campaign calling for a boycott against one of the of the major banks in the Netherlands.   
 1979 Campaign against the role of the Royal Dutch Shell in South Africa.   
 1982 United Nations year for sanctions against South Africa. Several activities to promote boycotts, sanctions and disinvestment.   
 1985 Steunt uw geld apartheid? (Does your money support apartheid?) Campaign in co-operation with ten church organisations. Focus on economic sanctions against South Africa, boycott of tourism to South Africa and boycott of fruit from South Africa.   
 1986 Trade union leader speaks on behalf of Kairos at Philips shareholders meeting.   
 1993 25 October 1993. Lecture by Justice R Goldstone   
    
 See 11.3. The Kairos Foundation for a list of publications and information booklets, many of which were written for Kairos campaigns. Many of these are Dutch titles, but were also issued in English.   
    
 Subjects include apartheid, justice, legislation, Hoexter Commission, Rabie Commission, traditional authorities, refugees and exiles, sport, the United Nations and Amnesty International. The material covers a broad area of human rights issues, not all in depth. There is a large amount of material about legislation and the judicial process. The material under 6.5. Sport has a number of documents about sports boycotts.   
 Unpublished material may only be quoted with the permission of the author.   
 The material dates from 1962 to 2001. Dates refer to the dates on the material.   
    
 There are three main categories of material:   
 Clippings consist of popular newspaper and magazine articles   
 Documents include organisational newsletters, letters, memoranda, and reports   
 Publications include published reports, seminar and conference papers, pamphlets, magazines, handbooks and educational material and books   
    
6.1. Human rights under apartheid   
 This includes a broad range of material about abuses with some material covering international actions against apartheid. See 9.2. for the Kairos magazine Amandla which appeared regularly with information about South Africa and 9.14. Shirebu, the Shipping Research Bureau and related publications concerning sanctions and trade. Often international campaigns against trade combined South African and Namibian trade, see 10.3.2.5.   
6.1.1. Clippings 1978-1996 (1 file)   
 Clippings and articles about human rights, the bill of rights, executions, constitution, freedom of speech, trade embargoes and the homelands.   
 See 11.Organisations and campaigns, for reference material about sanctions and campaigns for human rights.   
6.1.2. Documents 1962-1989 (2 files)   
 Subjects of papers include:   
 African Charter on Human and Peoples Rights   
 SA Law Commission on Group and Human Rights, 1989   
 Black Sash reports, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1972   
 Apartheid, racism, detention without trial   
 Solomon Mahlangu conviction   
    
6.2. Human rights discourse   
 Material includes press reports, letters, reports, and journal articles on the elections, the Human Rights Commission, xenophobia and refugees. Subjects deal with a bill of rights, government comment and actions for promotion of human rights. International comment and actions.   
6.2.1. Clippings 1982-2001 (2 files)   
 Include articles debates about human rights issues, education for, and the development of a human rights culture in South Africa.   
6.2.2. Documents 1984-2000 (2 files)   
 Include:   
 South African country report on human rights practices for 1996, US State Department   
 European Union joint motion for a resolution, response to dismantling of apartheid, 12 February 1992   
 Papers from:   
 Amnesty International   
 Black Sash   
 Institute for Human Rights Education   
 South African Law Commission   
 United States Mission to International Organizations   
 Papers by:   
 LWH Ackermann   
 TW Bennett   
 Brian Currin   
 Rhoda E Howard   
 Sam C Nolutshungu   
 Speeches by:   
 Nelson Mandela   
 Alfred Nzo   
    
6.3. Justice and the law   
 Also see 3.7. Peoples courts and popular justice.   
6.3.1. Hoexter Commission 1983 (2 items)   
 Commission of Inquiry into the Structure and Functioning of the Courts, Chairman Mr Justice GG Hoexter,   
6.3.1.1. Clippings 1980-1984 (1 file)   
 Articles discuss the sentencing of youthful offenders, criticism of the judiciary, military courts and judicial procedures. The unsatisfactory conditions of employment and parole system and the exclusion of non-whites from employment in the courts are seen as contributing factors to the deteriorating administration of justice. A small claims court, the mainstreaming of people's courts, prison reform and judicial reform are debated.   
6.3.1.2. Documents 1983-1984 (3 items)   
 Include:   
 Fifth and Final Report, Part A and Part B (Volumes I and III). This includes a section, 'The efficient administration of justice and special courts for blacks'.   
 A new trend towards legal reform in South Africa, Fikile C Bam, 14 November 1984   
    
6.3.2. Rabie Commission   
 The Commission was appointed in 1979 to investigate legislation relating to the protection of internal security. Also see 3.11.2. for publications.   
6.3.2.1. Clippings 1982-1983 (1 file)   
 Subjects include the submissions to the commission and the recommendations and functioning of the Commission.   
6.3.2.2. Documents 1982 (2 items)   
 Include:   
 Report on the Rabie report, Centre for Applied Legal Studies, University of the Witwatersrand, March 1982   
 Detentions, Rabie reports, Work in Progress, April 1982   
    
6.3.3. Other commissions 1966-1992 (3 items)   
 See 3.4.2.1. for the Skweyiya and Douglas Commissions in 1992, and Motseunyane Commission in 1993, 3.10. for Harms, Cillie and Goldstone Commissions, 10.12.2. for Van Dyk Commission, 11.11. for NUSAS and the Schlebusch Commission.   
 Items include:   
 Report of the Commission of Enquiry, Commission of Enquiry into complaints by former ANC prisoners and detainees and a statement by Nelson R Mandela, 1999   
 Report van die Kommissie van Ondersoek na die omstandighede van die dood van sy wyle, sy Edele dr Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd (report about the circumstances of the death of HF Verwoerd, Prime Minister)   
    
6.3.4. Legislation   
 Most of the legislation concerns the procedures in the courts, security legislation and conditions for judges and attorneys. See1.5.2.3. for legislation about land and property rights, 2.6.2.1. for the Prisons Act.   
6.3.4.1. Government Gazette 1982-1994 (2 files)   
 Government Gazette copies of bills, acts, proclamations, schedules and amendments. Include:   
 Right of Appearance in Court   
 Internal Security Act   
 Public Safety Act   
 Police Act   
 Criminal Law and Criminal Procedure Act   
 Magistrates Courts, Amendment of the Rules of Court   
 Security Officers Amendment Bill   
 Regional Services Council Amendment Act   
 Publications Act   
 Admission of Advocates Amendment Act   
 Attorneys Amendment Act   
 Indemnity Act   
 Proceedings of the Divisions of the Supreme Court   
 Small Claims Court   
 Legal Aid Amendment   
 Judicial Matters Amendment   
 Judges Remuneration   
6.3.4.2. Legal Resources Centre, Durban 1982 (3 files)   
 Include:   
 Black Administration Act and Regulations No 38 of 1927 Volumes 1, 2, (as amended), compiled by CR Nicholson, LRC, Durban, July 1982   
 Black Social Pensions in Natal and KwaZulu, a manual compiled by CR Nicholson and RM Lyster, LRC, Durban, 1982   
6.3.4.3. Clippings 1972-1992 (8 files)   
 Most of these clippings are for 1989-1991. The reports cover security legislation with some reports about the Group Areas Act and other apartheid legislation.   
6.3.4.4. Documents 1982-1996 (4 files)   
 The documents consist of a file of press statements, transcripts of speeches and articles about legislation. These include:   
 Statement by ANC about restructuring the administration of justice by the SA government, undated   
 Speeches by MP Carl Niehaus, National Assembly Chamber, transcripts of tapes 275 and 276, concern bill about fugitive offenders, 31 Oct 1996   
 Press releases on visa restrictions for blacks (1982) and Bishop Tutus statement about the legal system, Press Trust, 1983   
 Media statement by the Department of Justice about the Justice Laws Rationalisation Bill   
 Black Sash articles on legislation, including the Sabotage bill, house arrest and the rule of law, detention clauses, Suppression of Communism Act, Public Safety Act and amendments, 1962-1978   
 Journal articles and seminar papers:   
 Papers for the Seminar on the Legal Aspects of Apartheid, Lawyers for Human Rights, 6-7 July 1985   
 Detention and Security Legislation in South Africa, proceedings of a conference held at the University of Natal, September 1982, ed AN Bell RDA Mackie, 1985   
 The meaning of law and order in an apartheid society, Mana Slabbert, Black Sash Annual National Conference, 15 March 1984   
 The courts, security legislation and the stifling of dissent, Gilbert Marcus, Centre for Applied Legal Studies, 18 April 1985   
    
6.3.5. Judicial process   
6.3.5.1. Clippings 1975-2001 (11 files)   
 Subjects include the application of legislation, sentencing and judges decisions in court cases.   
6.3.5.2. Documents 1972-1995 (2 files)   
 Articles, press releases, reports about court cases and other aspects of the judicial process.   
 Miscellaneous documents include:   
 Opening address to the Law Society by Nelson R Mandela, 30 October 1993   
 National Association of Democratic Lawyers minutes (handwritten, copy), May 1987   
 Inaugural lecture at the University of Cape Town, Prof A du Toit, Institute for a Democratic Alternative (IDASA)   
 Black Sash articles   
 Legal Resources Centre newsletter, 30 September 1989   
 Press releases and articles   
 Journal articles, papers and authors:   
 Lawyers Committee for Civil Rights under Law, seminar papers by Penelope Andrew, Nakedi Mathews Phosa   
 South African Journal of Ethnology, LC Vorster and FC de Beer   
 South African Journal on Human Rights, CRM Dlamini   
 South African Law on Trial, summarised paper, Nicholas Haysom   
 Ernie Wentzel Memorial Lecture, Sydney Kentridge   
 Gilbert Marcus   
 AS Mathews   
 CILSA, Suloshini Moodley   
 Transafrica Forum, Robert L Wilkins   
6.3.5.3. Hansard 1984-1995 (1 file)   
 Questions in Parliament concerning legislation and those tried, particularly about security legislation.   
    
6.3.6. Legal profession   
 Subjects include the application of the law , sentencing and the admissibility of statements. There are articles about individuals and the Legal Resources Centre with material about judges, attorneys, advocates and legal services for the disadvantaged.   
6.3.6.1. Clippings 1973-1999 (6 files)   
 Some clippings examine hanging judges and the methods and the ethics of the legal profession.   
6.3.6.2. Documents 1980-1991 (2 files)   
 Articles on human rights, international law, security legislation, judges court decisions and ethical responsibilities.   
 Miscellaneous documents include:   
 Letter with attached report on book by DJ Titus (see 6.11. below) from John Dugard, University of the Witwatersrand, 31 March 1993   
 Press reports, response by Minister to Edwin Cameron   
 A paper describing the work of the Legal Resources Centre (LRC), September 1982   
 Article about the LRC, A Chaskalson, 1980   
 LEAP discussion paper, How to build a para-legal unit   
 Originators of articles and papers:   
 Centre for the Independence of Judges and Lawyers (1989)   
 Press Trust of SA (1983)   
 Dennis Davis   
 Sydney Kentridge   
 LSA Conference, David Dyzenhaus, June 1991   
 Edwin Cameron   
 GD Andrew Thembile Skweyiya   
 Regional Government Workshop, Prof GE Davenish   
 F Muller   
 CH Albertyn and DM Davis   
 AS Mathews   
 John Dugard   
 Michael Kidd, SA Journal on Human Rights   
 Cameron Dugmore   
    
6.3.7. Status of liberation movement 1980-1989 (2 files)   
 Liberation groups such as MK etc were regarded as criminals and traitors, outlawed through security legislation. The view of the liberation movement was that there was a state of war, which meant their arrested (captured) members were prisoners of war. This material includes information on political trials and articles relating to international conventions. Also some information on right-wing resistance.   
 Miscellaneous reports include:   
 Signing of the Geneva Convention by the ANC in 1980, printed 2000   
 Press reports   
 Authors of articles and reports:   
 Kader Asmal   
 Sammy Adelman   
 Andre Borrowdale   
 Christina Murray   
 Raymond Suttner   
    
6.3.8. General legal resources   
6.3.8.1. Articles and reports 1984-1998 (2 files)   
 Subjects include the Nkomati agreement, state of emergency, customary law, popular justice, human rights, and transition.   
 Authors and organisations include:   
 Richard Abel   
 Amnesty International   
 Kader Asmal, University of Dublin   
 Dennis Davis   
 CRM Dlamini   
 John Dugard   
 Stephen Ellman   
 Tony Fluxman   
 Yvonne Mokgoco   
 Patrick Mzolisi Mtshaulana, doctoral script, Amsterdam, 1992   
 Daniel Nina   
 AJGM Sanders   
 Victor Southwell   
    
6.4. Press and media   
 The press operated under restrictions in reporting and journalists were detained. The government controlled the availability of information to the public. At times, the overseas press revealed more about the situation in South Africa than the local press. Kairos played an active role in collating and disseminating news to the international press.. See 10.5.2.2. for the media in Namibia. See 2.1.4.2. for detentions and trials.   
6.4.1. Clippings 1977-1989 (1 file)   
 Reports on media legislation, banning of publications and detentions of journalists and other media workers. Included are examples of the type of information that was released such as lists of detainees and procedures for visiting detainees. There are articles about the intimidation and control of the media, including the content of programmes and articles.   
6.4.2. Documents 1986-1988 (1 file)   
 There are a number of extracts from a magazine, Index on Censorship. These have in-depth reports and interviews about the freedom of the press, how journalists dealt with media regulations, state interference and developments and statistics in the area of repression of media freedom. There are articles from Lawyers Committee for Human Rights and the CIIR on press freedom and detained media workers. Other articles deal with the influence of imprisonment on literature. A 1993 article by Paul Gready, University of the Witwatersrand examines the power of prison writing. See 2.9.1. for further lists of detentions.   
    
6.5. Sport 1973-1995   
 Apartheid laws dictated separate sporting amenities for black sport, unequal allocation of resources in the development of sport and the non-recognition of blacks as representatives of their country both internationally and locally. Organisations such as the South African Council on Sport (SACOS) and SA Non-Racial Olympic Committee (SAN-ROC) were formed to foster sport among blacks. Overseas organisations and the UN campaigned for the boycotting of white SA teams and the exclusion of white South Africans from international events. Under the apartheid government, sport became an important vehicle for highlighting the inequities of apartheid among white South Africans. Most of the material covers the 1970s and 1980s.   
6.5.1. Clippings 1979-1995 (1 file)   
 Includes clippings from the early campaigns to prevent SA teams and individuals from participating in international sport.   
6.5.2. Documents 1973-1988 (22 items)   
 Material from local black sports organisations and overseas organisations from Kairos file.   
 Organisations and items include:   
6.5.2.1 South African Darts Board of Control:   
 Brochure for an invitation match, includes a message from Hassan Howa, President of SACOS, 1 September 1979   
6.5.2.2 Transvaal Council of Sport:   
 Second Annual General Meeting with Financial Statement, 30 May 1979   
6.5.2.3 South African Cricket Board:   
 Memorandum to the International Cricket Conference, June 1979   
6.5.2.4 UN Special Committee on Apartheid:   
 Letter to the Netherlands Permanent Representative about South African participation in Paraplegic Olympics, Netherlands in 1980, 3 July 1973   
6.5.2.5 Pax Christi:   
 Statement (Dutch) about SA participation in the Paraplegic Olympics, 17 October 1979   
 Letter to Dutch anti-apartheid organisations (listed) about SA participation in the Paraplegic Olympics, 6 February 1979   
6.5.2.6 UN Special Committee Against Apartheid:   
 Meeting about the world-wide campaign against apartheid in sports, 28 March 1980   
6.5.2.7 SACOS General Secretary, MN Panther:   
 Letter about the world-wide campaign, 4 February 1981   
6.5.2.8 Holland Committee on Southern Africa:   
 Request for support for SACOS, 10 February 1981   
 Springbok Rugby Tour to New Zealand, 1981   
 Information on Halt All Racist Tours (HART) and details on rugby   
6.5.2.9 Western Province (WP) Rugby Board President, LG Daba:   
 Letter with statement of principal to fight juvenile delinquency, 5 February 1982,   
 Three attachments, information about the WP Rugby Board, 15 January 1980, estimated budget for 1982, handwritten note signed Erik commenting on support   
6.5.2.10 Dutch Memorandum, Dr R Kramer with handwritten note:   
 Report on call for sporting boycott, 8 October 1982   
 Press statement about a meeting with Minister de Boer and the Nederlandse Sport Federation:   
6.5.2.11 Swedish Memorandum on Sports   
 Summary mentioning activities to enforce boycott of SA sport with organisations, Isolate SA Committees (ISAC), Africa Groups of Sweden (AGIS), March 1984   
6.5.2.12 Anti-Apartheid Movement, London:   
6.5.2.12.1 Memorandum to the Rugby Football Union, England, Position on the rugby tour, 12 March 1984 Anti-Apartheid Movement, London: 12-03-1981 
6.5.2.13 Holland Committee on SA, 13 July 1978:   
 Press releases in Dutch about SA sport, overpage, questions in Dutch Tweede Kamer van der Staten-Generaal about sport in SA, 24 June 1988   
    
6.5.3. Pamphlets (3 items)   
 This material is undated.   
 Include:   
 CIIR:   
6.5.3.1 Comment: Sport and apartheid, information booklet Catholic Institute for International Relations 1982 
 KLM:   
6.5.3.2 How to organise an overseas sports tour   
 SAN-ROC:   
6.5.3.3 Demonstrate against French rugby (original, flyer) SAN-ROC undated 
    
6.5.4. Magazines 1968-1990 (12 items)   
 The 'Politics in Sport' publication is a detailed study of apartheid in sport.   
 Include:   
6.5.4.1 Development Studies Group, SA Research Service, University of the Witwatersrand:   
 Politics in Sport No 5, 13 September 1968   
6.5.4.2 SAN-ROC:   
6.5.4.2.1 International campaign against apartheid sport, 7 items   
6.5.4.2.2 Sasport, Sport and Apartheid, 1987-1990   
 Includes:   
6.5.4.2.2.1 Sport and Apartheid Newsletter Vol 1 No 4 July 1987 International campaign against apartheid sport, SAN-ROC 04-Jul-87 
6.5.4.2.3 Sports Focus, 4 items, 1976-1981   
6.5.4.3 United Nations:   
6.5.4.3.1 International Conference Against Apartheid Sport, 5-7 November 1987 Sport and Apartheid 5,6,7 Nov 1987 
    
6.6. Refugees and exiles   
 Events covering the repatriation of refugees and return of exiles. Also see 9.12.2. for SIM Special, 10.10. for refugees in Namibia.   
6.6.1. UN High Commission on Refugees 1991 (1 file)   
 Mission report and supporting documentation. These include the agreement with the South African government, information about meetings with other organisations and governments, planning and procedures for repatriation of refugees.   
6.6.2. Repatriation of South African exiles 1990-1991 (15 items)   
 The National Co-ordinating Committee for the Repatriation of SA Exiles comprised members of civil society, NGOs and churches. Includes information about meetings, appeals and programmes.   
6.6.3. Indemnity 1990-1992 (18 items)   
 Legislation was passed to grant indemnity for crimes committed under the apartheid government.   
 Items include:   
 Government Gazette, 17 issues, some name persons granted indemnity,   
 List of names and dates of persons and their conditions for immunity under the Indemnity Act 35 of 1990, compiled by Centre for Applied Legal Studies, 19 March 1992   
6.6.4. Documents 1990-1993 (9 items)   
 Items include:   
 UNHCR and South African Council of Churches' documents   
 Statement by the Minister of Foreign Affairs   
 Report from the Repatriation, Demobilisation and Reintegration Conference, 1993.   
 Campaign material and articles about exile, Dennis Brutus, who the US government wanted to deport, 1982   
6.6.5. Clippings 1990-1992 (1 file)   
 Includes articles about the plight of exiles, as well as negotiations to bring about the return of exiles.   
    
6.7. The United Nations   
6.7.1. Human Rights Commission 1968-1995 (5 files)   
 This material includes UN Economic and Social Council documents, representations and speeches, resolutions and press updates. Statements by representatives of other countries including Portugal and the USA.   
6.7.2. General Assembly 1977-1994 13 items)   
 Includes reports, resolutions and General Assembly documents concerning South African human rights abuses such as apartheid.   
6.7.3. Security Council 1992 (3 items)   
 Include:   
 1992 Report of the Secretary General on South Africa   
 Two items on Resolution 772   
6.7.4. Centre for Human Rights 1991 (1 item)   
 Include World Council of Churches report on the Seminar on International Human Rights, Standards and Constitutional Law, 17-20 June 1991.   
6.7.5. Clippings 1983-1999 (1 file)   
 Published by non-UN organisations. UN resolutions and activities, and the responses of the South African government to the UN.   
6.7.6. Documents 1948-1994 (8 items)   
 These include press releases, articles and pamphlets published by the UN.   
 Include the International Bill of Human Rights and a 1983 report summarising UN actions in the field of human rights.   
    
6.8. Amnesty International   
 Reports, statements and other documents. These include Amnesty International News Service releases and Reports. Subjects cover human rights issues including torture, police brutality, peace, torture in ANC camps, refugees, the death penalty, state of emergency regulations, conscientious objection, Namibia, death squads, extra-judicial executions and detentions.   
6.8.1. Documents   
6.8.1.1. Statute and mandate 1985-1988 (3 items)   
 Include:   
 Amnesty International Statute 27, August 1985   
 Conscientious objection to military service, February 1988   
 The pass laws, Conclusion, Chapter 9 (copy from unnamed publication), undated   
6.8.1.2. South African Government 1993-2000 (2 items)   
 Include:   
 Letter (copy) addressed to the SA Government, the letter is addressed to FW de Klerk, State President, dated 8 December 1993, signed by Pierre Sane, Secretary General Amnesty International and concerns the human rights situation in South Africa and urges the implementation of practical measures   
 Memorandum, Preserving the gains from human rights in the 'war against crime', November 2000   
6.8.1.3. Statements to the UN 1986-1994 (8 items)   
 Amnesty International made representations and presented reports to the UN on the human rights situation and the need for action in South Africa. Oral and written statements by Amnesty International to UN organisations include:   
 United Nations High Commission on Refugees (UNCHR), 7 December 1986   
 UN Special Committee on Apartheid, October 1989   
 UN Special Committee on Apartheid, October 1990   
 47th session of the UNCHR, February 1991   
 Ad Hoc Working Group of Experts on Southern Africa, 24 July 1991   
 48th session of the UNCHR, January 1992   
 49th session of the UNCHR, 8 February 1993   
 50th session of the UNCHR, 4 February 1994   
6.8.1.4. News releases 1986-1996 (8 items)   
 Amnesty International's news releases publicised the names of people at risk and activities contrary to a human rights culture. These include:   
6.8.1.4.1 Killing of David Webster, 12 May 1989 Amnesty International 12th May 1989 
 Detentions of church ministers, Frederick Huskie, Christian Nissen, Charlene Nissen and trade unionists, Thozamile Gqweta, Sisa Njikelana, Sam Kikine, Isaac Ngcoba. Torture of Tshenuweni Simon Farisani, Fundisile Matshini, Bessie Fihla, Ashraf Mahomed. Assault of Barbara Hogan, 18 January 1986   
 Torture of Billy Nair, Dennis Neer, Bessie Fihla, Tetani Jordan, Fundisile Matshini, 24 January 1986   
 Banning of SA human rights groups, 25 February 1988   
 Conscientious objector Ivan Toms, 4 March 1988   
 Medical concern for Veliswa Mhlawuli, 10 February 1989   
 Extra-judicial execution/death threats in respect of Henry Luthuli, Nokuzola Luthuli, 11 May 1993   
 Enquiry into use of electro-shock weapons, 1 August 1996   
    
6.8.2. Urgent Action 1984-1995 (5 files)   
 Press releases alerting organisations of detainees at risk of human rights abuses such as torture, lack of medical treatment, execution, solitary confinement, prolonged imprisonment and isolation. These releases included campaigns and actions to mobilise support and exert pressure on the authorities. The releases name the detainees. Many of these are also in individual files in 10. Detentions.   
6.8.3. Reports 1989-1994 (18 items)   
 Issued by the National Secretariat, London.   
 Subjects include emergency regulations, the death penalty, political killings, refugees, the treatment of ANC prisoners and the elections.   
6.8.4. Yearbooks 1975-1990 (16 items)   
 Copies of the Africa and South Africa reports from the Yearbooks. These provide summaries and statistics that reflect the human rights conditions in the country. Some of these are in Dutch.   
6.8.5. Clippings 1986-1993 (6 items)   
 Reports on human rights issues.   
    
6.9. Human Rights Commission 1988-1994 (1 file)   
 Includes clippings, press statements and fact papers relating to bannings, detentions without trial, and the Internal Security Act. Also contains a special report dated 1988 entitled Memorandum on repression and the municipal elections.   
6.10. Reports and brochures 1987-1997 (16 items)   
 Reports on the human rights situation and the development of human rights, educational material and conferences.   
 Publications include:   
 A guide to establishing a human rights documentation centre, UNESCO, November 1988   
 Peace services of the Churches Christian Council of Sweden, report on a seminar in Sweden, 2-4 May 1994   
 South African Council of Churches trainers manual   
 Report of a conference in Nairobi, 2-4 December 1985, International Commission of Jurists   
 Paper by Kader Asmal, Ecumenical Foundation of SA, 1993   
 British Parliamentary Human Rights Group report of 1989   
 The dismantling of apartheid, Andre Thomashausen, 1987   
 Publications from the Development Action Group, ANC, CIIR, Legal Resources Centre and South African Embassy Information Series   
6.11. Publications 1988-1998 (3 boxes)   
 Items include:   
 Amnesty International:   
 Refugees, human rights have no borders, 1997   
 Black Sash:   
 Wir haben immer nur den Himmel angeschaut, Leben in Sudafrikas todesfabrik, 1989   
 Working for justice, The role of para-legals in South Africa, with the Legal Education Action Project, December 1990   
 The law in South Africa, as predator not protector, Report from the Black Sash National Conference, Johannesburg 15-18 March 1984   
 Law without justice, a dangerous prospect, (brochure), Report of the Black Sash National Conference, Cape Town 10-13 March 1983, edited by M Nash   
 Community Law Centre:   
 Amalungelo oluntu / Human rights, Educational introduction into human rights for rural people, with illustrations, in English and Xhosa, Durban, 1991   
 EUI:   
 Nationality and apartheid, (brochure), Some reflections on the use of national law as weapon against violation of fundamental rights, A EUI working paper no. 89/419 by Hans Ulrich Jesserun DOliveira, Florence, 1989   
 Institute for International Mediation and Conflict Resolution (IIMR) and Interdisciplinary Research programme on Causes of Human Rights Violations, Leiden University:   
 World conflict and human rights map, 1998   
 International Commission of Jurists:   
 The Review, articles on human rights, tribunals, June 1996   
 Paralegal trainer manual for Africa, Geneva, 1994   
 Legal services in rural areas in Africa, Geneva, 1997   
 The evolving African constitutionalism, ICJ Review, Special Issue, Geneva, 1998   
 Report of a regional seminar on economic, social and cultural rights, with African Development Bank, Abidjan, 1998   
 Workshop on NGO participation in the African Commission on human and peoples rights, a critical evaluation and A compilation of basic documents, 1991-1996   
 Paralegals in rural South Africa, seminars in Gambia, 1989 and Zimbabwe, 1990   
 Lawyers Committee for Human Rights:   
 Human rights for all, Education towards a rights culture, Student text (book) and teachers manual, David McQuoid-Mason, Edward L OBrien and Eleanor Greene, A LHR-publication and David Philip Africa South Leaners Series   
 Netherlands Institute of South Africa:   
 Tradition on the move, Chiefs, democracy and change in rural South Africa, Barbara Oomen, 2000   
 South African Catholic Bishops Conference:   
 Your legal rights, (brochure), What every person should know when questioned, with house search, arrest and about legal assistance, when making statements, how to act in court and in detention., Published in English, Afrikaans, Xhosa and Zulu,, Pretoria, August 1979   
 South African Institute of Race Relations:   
 Race classification in South Africa), Its effects on human beings, no 2 1958   
 Action, reaction and counteraction, (brochure, copy), A companion booklet to Legislation and Race Relations, Muriel Horrell, Johannesburg, 1963.   
 Do judges speak out? Richard Goldstone, Johannesbug,1993   
 South African Law Commission:   
 Interim report on group and human rights, August 1991   
 Twenty third annual report, 1995   
 Summary of interim report, 1991   
 TMC Asser Institute:   
 The applicability of the international human rights norms to the South African legal system, (book), With specific reference to the role of the judiciary, PhD thesis, Danfred J Titus, The Hague, 1993   
 United Nations:   
 Segregation in South Africa, (brochure), Questions and answers on the policy of apartheid, New York, c 1969.   
 University of Cape Town:   
 Justice for all? South Africas legal system, Prospects and problems, Legal representation, knowledge of law and court procedures, legal aid., Mana Slabbert, Institute of Criminology, 1981   
 University of Leiden:   
 The influence of public international law on the South African judiciary, with specific reference to human rights, DJ Titus, Doctoral script, Faculty of Law, 1991   
 Political decisionmaking by the South African judiciary, with specific reference to human rights and fundamental freedoms, DJ Titus, Doctoral script, Faculty of Law, Leiden University, 1991   
 University of Utrecht:   
 The role of the Bill of Rights for a democratic South Africa, (brochure), Key issues, Speech at an Anti Apartheid-meeting at the University of Utrecht in 1992 by adv Abdullah M Omar   
 Apartheid and racial discrimination in Southern Africa II, (brochure). A part of the 1968 Report of the Special Rapporteur appointed by the Commission on Human Rights, New York, 1970, Mandela Reeks 4, University of Utrecht, 1992.   
 University of the Witwatersrand:   
 Is this justice?, (brochure), A study of the Johannesburg commissioners pass courts, Ramarumo Monama, Occasional Papers 4, Centre for Applied Legal Studies, Johannesburg, June 1983   
 Outcasts from justice, (brochure), The consequences of banning orders under the Internal Security Act, Sarah Parry, Occasional papers 2, Centre for Applied Legal Studies, Johannesburg, 1981.   
 The denationalisation of black South Africans in pursuance of apartheid (brochure), A question for the International Court of Justice? John Dugard, Occasional papers 8, Centre for Applied Legal Studies, Johannesburg, August 1981   
 The future of Muslim family law in South Africa, Firoz Cachalia, Centre for Applied Legal Studies, 1991   
 Margaret de Lange:   
 The muzzled muse, literature and censorship in South Africa 1963-1985, D.Phil. dissertation, City University of new York, 1993   
 Sas Strauss:   
 You in the small claims court, A practical guide (2nd edition), 1990   
    
CONSCRIPTION   
 The apartheid government had a policy of compulsory conscription for white men who were expected to perform military service at regular intervals. Increasingly stringent laws were passed increasing periods of service, broadening the base of eligible white men who could be called up, and providing stringent sentences for those men who objected.   
    
 Conscripts provided the major part of South African Defence Force (SADF) and South African Police (SAP) personnel. They were seen to support the government's policies with actions against liberation movements, exercises in the black townships and the repression of anti-apartheid activities.   
    
 The End Conscription Campaign (ECC) was formed in 1983, in protest against compulsory military service. It mobilised support for its campaigns, proposed service alternatives, supported conscientious objectors and provided a forum for the public with information and education on conscription and the alternatives.   
 Conscientious objection was a serious choice as the consequences were severe. The reasons for conscientious objection included political, ethical and religious reasons. Some religious organisations, parent groups and student organisations such as the National Union of South African Students (NUSAS) also engaged in anti-conscription activities.   
    
 A Kairos campaign against conscription was the 1989 Campaign focussing on the End Conscription Campaign with participation of Alistair Teeling Smith, Rob Watson and Mandy Tailor.   
    
 Unpublished material may only be quoted with the permission of the author.   
 The material dates from 1978 to 1994. Dates refer to the dates on the material.   
 The papers have been divided into three main categories under subject headings, these are:   
 Clippings which include popular newspaper and magazine articles   
 Documents include pamphlets, articles about constitutional reform and campaign papers   
 Cases are compilations of material relating to specific conscientious objectors   
    
7.1. Conscientious objectors   
7.1.1. Clippings 1978-1993 (4 files)   
 Include articles and clippings about conscientious objectors, the ECC and conscription policy and enforcement.   
7.1.2. Documents 1975-1983 (8 items)   
 These include information booklets on South African law and conscription in South Africa, pro-conscription material issued by the South African Defence Force and anti-conscription material and information from the Catholic Institute for International Research (CIIR), Durban Ad-Hoc Committee on Alternative National Service, NUSAS, Amnesty International and the Committee on South African War Resistance (COSAWR). Items include:   
 Foundation for Peace and Justice:   
 A handbook for conscientious objectors, 1988   
 South African Outlook:   
 Conscientious conscription and violence   
 Western Cape Conscientious Objector Support Group:   
 OBJECTOR newsletters from   
 United Nations:   
 Conscientious objection to military service, 1985   
7.1.3. Cases 1982-1990 (2 files)   
 This material consists of clippings and documents describing court cases, military hearings and the reasons for conscientious objection for individual cases. Conscientious objectors include:   
 Philip Wilkinson   
 Ivan Toms   
 David Bruce   
 Charles Bester   
 Saul Batzofin   
 Andre Zaaiman   
 Billy Paddock   
 Neil Mitchell   
 Charles Yeats   
 Brett Myrdal   
    
7.2. End Conscription Campaign (ECC)   
 The 1980s were marked by intensive anti-conscription campaigns, with the End Conscription Campaign the most prominent organisation. The ECC had wide support from students, religious groups and the UN. In 1994, the first democratic elections resulted in a change in government. The South African National Defence Force replaced the South African Defence Force. The liberation armies were integrated into the SANDF and the policy for compulsory military service by white men was dropped.   
7.2.1. Clippings 984-1994 (1 file)   
 These clippings cover anti-conscription activities and the response of the government.   
    
7.2.2. Documents   
7.2.2.1. General conscription 1982-1993 (1 file)   
 Include material from various organisations. Subjects cover activities, correspondence with international organisations, statements, proposals and advice for conscientious objectors.   
 Include:   
 International Fellowship of Reconciliation, Holland   
 Amnesty International   
 SA Catholic Bishops Conference   
 OBJECTOR, a newsletter of the Conscientious Objectors Support group   
 Committee on SA War Resistance   
 Religious organisations   
 Conscription Advice Service   
7.2.2.2. ECC resources 1984-1993 (1 file)   
 This file contains ECC campaign material, correspondence, statements concerning beliefs and the rights of individuals, proposals and newsletters.   
    
CHILDREN AND YOUTH   
 Apartheid policies had harsh effects on families and children. Homelessness, unemployment and poverty resulted in increasing social problems. Children were particularly vulnerable and the lack of effective social and health services for blacks exacerbated the situation. Black children had little or no protection from the State. Some engaged in resistance activities that gave rise to their detention and maltreatment.   
 Student organisations such as the Congress of South African Students (COSAS), an organisation for black students, and the National Union of South African Students (NUSAS), a white student organisation, were involved in anti-apartheid activities and many of their members were detained, tortured, and tried for serious and petty offences.   
    
 Kairos campaigns and projects for the youth and children include:   
 1977 Campaign against children in detention   
 1986 Campaign against children in detention . Distribution of 125 000 protest cards addressed to PW Botha. Close co-operation with the Detainees Parents Support Committee.   
 1987 Continuation of campaigns against children in detention and violence against children. Dutch translation of the War against Children. Massive support from primary schools in the Netherlands.   
 1994 Children and violence. The power to survive. Straatkinderen, Street children in South Africa, November 1994.   
 1998 Youth workers visit to the Netherlands, 8-16 March 1998   
 2000 Working visit of the South African Youth Development Network , 4-14 June. Youth workers visit to the Netherlands, 24 September-4 October   
 Stepping Stones Working visit to the Netherlands 22-31 October. Training of youth workers, Johannesburg, 9-13 October.   
 2001 Training for youth workers and issuing of diplomas March. Youth Workers working visit to the Netherlands. 17-24 June. Juvenile Justice in South Africa. A working visit by Dutch experts, 19-23 February, 2001.   
 Kairos had an ongoing programme of training, evaluation and conferences. It involved youth workers and organisations such as NICRO.   
    
 Subjects include detention of children, street children, assault, abuse, prostitution and sexual abuse, orientation camps, student activists, juvenile justice, trials and rehabilitation.   
 The Kairos material on children includes reports and studies by non-governmental organisations and church groups. Organisations such as the Detainees Parents Support Committee and Amnesty International publicised the treatment of the youth and organised campaigns for their support and release.   
 Unpublished material may only be quoted with the permission of the author.   
 The material dates from 1976 to 2002. Dates refer to the dates on the material.   
    
 The material has been separated into three main categories:   
 Clippings: consists of popular newspaper and magazine articles   
 Documents: includes organisational newsletters, Hansard extracts, published and unpublished reports, Amnesty International communiqus and notes.   
 Publications: include conference and study papers, publications issued by non-governmental and political groups, copies of legislation, handbooks, publications from international anti-apartheid organisations and churches.   
    
8.1. Street children   
8.1.1. Clippings 1986-2000 (3 files)   
 Articles discuss the reasons for children living on the strret, poverty, crime and their rehabilitation.   
8.1.2. Documents and reports 1991-1995 (12 items)   
 These include pamphlets, articles and case studies. Subjects include a feminist analysis of street children. Organisations include:   
 Childrens Rights Ministry   
 The Ecumenical Documentation and Information Centre for Eastern and Southern Africa   
 Human Sciences Research Council   
 Institute of Criminology   
 Southern African Research and Documentation Centre   
 Universities and workshops   
8.2. Children in detention   
 Children were detained for a number of reasons. Even the very young were detained as a perceived threat to the state. Others were detained in the company of a detained adult or because of criminal activities. Children were at risk especially when detained with adults. There were cases of torture and abuse of young activists.   
    
8.2.1. Detention and prison   
 Also see 2.1.2.3., 2.1.4.3., 2.1.5.3. for detention of students and youth, 3.4.4. for the detention of members of the Pan-Africanist Students Organisation.   
8.2.1.1. Clippings 1976-1998 (4 files)   
 These newspaper clippings report on children as young as eight years in detention, children awaiting trial, and reports of doctors and others visiting children. Hansard extracts include questions asked in Parliament about detained children.   
8.2.1.2. Documents 1978-2000 (38 items)   
 Papers include reports on post-1994 policy developments and legislation concerning detained children.   
 Organisations include:   
 Amnesty International   
 Black Sash   
 Detainees Parents Support Committee   
 Geneva Law Commission   
 Human Rights Commission   
 NAMDA   
 UN Centre Against Apartheid   
 Women for Peace   
    
8.2.2. Re-orientation camps   
 The Department of Education and Training (DET) camps, or re-absorption camps were used for children who were detained during the state of emergency in preparation for re-entry into their communities according to the official stance.   
8.2.2.1. Clippings 1986-1987 (1 file)   
 The clippings include reports from children who were former detainees at the DET re-orientation camps, questions about conditions, government responses,   
    
8.2.3. Cases of children in detention   
8.2.3.1. Clippings 1976-1994 (1 file)   
 These are collections of mostly clippings arranged in alphabetical order. Included are notes on the shooting, detention and kidnapping of White Mohape, a member of COSAS, April 1984, and the incarceration and trials of young activists.   
8.2.3.2. Publication 1987 (1 item)   
 The Wynberg Seven, by Gladys Thomas   
    
8.2.4. Torture   
8.2.4.1. Clippings 1986-1990 (1 file)   
 Reports on the abuse of children by the police.   
8.2.4.2. Documents 1986-1987 (4 items)   
 Articles on the torture of detained children reported by children, their parents and doctors. They were subjected to electric shocks, beatings, drowning, suffocation and other forms of torture in order to force confessions from them or to inform on others.   
    
8.2.5. Missing children 1985-1986 (1 file)   
 Reports of mass abductions and missing children reported by their parents. It is assumed that these children were detained, imprisoned, or sent to re-orientation camps or unknown locations, some were never found.   
    
8.3. Children and violence   
8.3.1. Political violence and crime   
 There were not always clear distinctions between political and social violence. Crimes were sometimes committed for political reasons. The effects of apartheid included degraded social conditions, which had a demoralising effect on both children and adults. Some responded to repression by getting involved in anti-apartheid and resistance activities.   
8.3.1.1. Clippings 19762000 (2 files)   
 Reports include incidents of violence where young people mobilised in their schools and in their communities.   
8.3.1.2. Documents 19871998 (9 items)   
 Papers include:   
 Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation:   
 A research overview, November 1987   
 The resurgence of pupil power, Explaining violence in African schools, Reuben Mogano, seminar paper, 24 March 1993   
 International Defence and Aid Fund:   
 Children in South Africa, Repression and resistance, notes and briefings, September 1989   
 Ministry of Safety and Security:   
 Discussion paper on approaches to the issue of militarised youth, September 1995   
 UN Centre Against Apartheid:   
 Repression and the law in apartheid South Africa, International Conference on Children, October 1987   
 Children in detention in South Africa, A Coleman, November 1987   
 Suffer the little children, N Ramsden, Southern National Childrens Rights Committee, Spring, 1994   
 Other:   
 Kinder im befreiungshkampf, Vox Africana no 34, November 1998   
 A child who survived the soldiers, a poem by S Pooe, Staffrider vol 7, no 1, 1988   
    
8.3.2. Child abuse   
 Also see 3.5.5. for sexual abuse.   
8.3.2.1. Clippings 1986-2002 (3 files)   
 Includes clippings about the abuse of street children, children in prison, South West Africa, abandoned babies and domestic child abuse. One file covers articles over a four-month period where children were kidnapped shortly after birth from hospitals.   
8.3.2.2. Documents 1995-1997 (4 items)   
 Subjects are sexual and other forms of abuse. Include:   
 South African Law Commission:   
 Sexual offences against children, 31 May 1997   
 South African Parliament:   
 Report on sexual abuse cases 1996, Child abuse, the establishment of a directorate, Hansard, 8 June 1995,   
 Childrens Rights Ministry:   
 Street children and police brutality, author unknown, contains case details   
    
8.3.3. Child prostitution   
8.3.3.1. Clippings 1992-2000 (1 file)   
 Include articles on child sex slaves, prostitutes in Hillbrow and the child sex industry.   
8.3.3.2. Documents 1996 (2 items)   
 Titles of pamphlets and reports include:   
 The House Group of Projects for Abused Girls:   
 The House, A place of hope for abused youth, case study, May 1996, Jean du Plessis and staff, for the NGO Group for the Convention on the rights of the child, prevention/ psycho-social rehabilitation of child victims of sexual exploitation   
    
8.3.4. General resources   
8.3.4.1. Clippings 1987-1999 (1 file)   
 Includes articles on corporal punishment, rural violence and abuse, the culture of violence in South Africa, armed conflict and socio-economic factors affecting children and contributing to a violent environment.   
8.3.4.2. Documents 1993-1994 (4 items)   
 Items include:   
 Goldstone Commission of Inquiry regarding prevention of public violence and intimidation:   
 Inquiry into the effects of public violence on children, bound vol, 10 August 1994   
 NCRC/UNICEF:   
 Voiceless victims, The impact of political violence on women and children, An assessment of their urgent survival and humanitarian needs, draft report, KwaZulu- Natal, undated   
 Children and women in South Africa, A situation analysis, June 1993   
 Other:   
 Addressing crime amongst South Africas marginalised youth, Social Update, second quarter 1994   
    
8.4. Child labour   
 Clippings and papers covering legislation and its effect on children. The Child Care Act, particularly Section 52A, is dealt with extensively. Organisations concerned with child labour include the SA Farmworkers Coordinating Committee, Johannesburg Child Welfare Society, Network Against Child Labour and the Rural Education Forum.   
8.4.1. Clippings 1987-2000 (1 file)   
 Articles examine the reasons for and effects of child labour and the control and legislation in relation to child labour.   
8.4.2. Documents 1991-1993 (11 items)   
 These include:   
 Letter to SA Farmworkers Education Project from Johannesburg Child Welfare, 18 March 1991   
 Letter to Carole Charlewood, MP about Johannesburg Child Welfares opinion on child labour and controlling legislation, from Dr A Thomas   
 Organisations:   
 Network Against Child Labour   
 Rural Education Forum   
 SA Farmworkers Coordinating Committee   
    
8.5. Childrens health   
 Include clippings, letters and papers on poverty and malnutrition.   
8.5.1. Clippings 1982-2000 (1 file)   
 Rural poverty, the child death rate and housing in the homelands are discussed. There are articles about the Potsdam camp, Vanrhiynsdorp, the second Carnegie enquiry into poverty and Operation Hunger.   
8.5.2 Publications and reports 1984-1989 (12 items)   
 Organisations involved include universities, Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk and Operation Hunger. Hansard transcripts and reports deal with questions about infant mortality, childrens homes, pensions and the Carnegie Conference on Poverty are recorded. Items include:   
 Die kerk en armes in Suid-Afrika, Prof JJ Kritzinger, University of Pretoria undated   
 Operation Hunger, A Financial Mail Survey, October 1988   
 Black Poverty in South Africa, Jeremy Keenan and Mike Sarakinsky, copy, South African Labour Bulletin, May-June 1987   
 The Ukuhleleleka of Port Elizabeth, A study of the African underclass of Port Elizabeth, Roy Riordan, Monitor, June 1988   
 Second Carnegie Inquiry into poverty and development, South African Outlook, June 1984   
 Special report on the Second Carnegie Inquiry into poverty and development, South African Outlook, June 1984,   
 The Carnegie Inquiry: Liberalism and the radical alternative, the Press Trust of South Africa, May 1984   
 Hansard, 20 February 1987, Infant mortality rate   
 Hansard, 24 February 1986, Infant mortality   
 Hansard 28 June 1984, Childrens homes   
 Hansard, 14 May 1984, Carnegie conference on poverty   
 Hansard 15 May 1984, Pensions   
 Hansard 27 April 1984, Carnegie conference   
 Hansard 15 February 1984, Infant mortality rate   
 Malnutrition, an overview and a case study, undated, source unknown   
    
8.6. The effects of apartheid on children   
8.6.1. Clippings 1986-1999 (1 file)   
 Reports deal with a range of problems including violent behaviour, health problems such as malnutrition, deficient education, child labour, crime and a lack of protection and supervision.   
8.6.2. Documents and reports 1991-2000 (4 files)   
 Some articles about programmes and research into the development and rehabilitation of children are listed below. There is also material from projects, studies, church and other organisations, which were involved in protecting the rights of children, measuring the effects of violence and neglect on children. Other subjects include the implications for social policy; children's health and programmes to improve conditions and support marginalised children.   
 Items include:   
 Centre for Intergroup studies:   
 Violence and children, Review of CIS.   
 Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation:   
 Psychosocial effects of criminal and political violence on children, Paraskevi Stavrou, 1992   
 Children and Violence Project:   
 Strategies for the future, Leila Patel, August 1994   
 Violence in the lives of children in South Africa, undated   
 Children who are survivors of violence, undated   
 The incidence of violence in the lives of children in South Africa, undated   
 Community Law Centre:   
 The current constitutional debate in South Africa, Whither childrens rights, Adv Dullah Omar, paper prepared for the International Conference on the Rights of the Child organised by the Community Law Centre of the University of the Western Cape 10-13 June 1992   
 European Parliamentarian for Southern Africa (AWEPA)   
 Stockholm plan of action for Southern Africas children, undated   
 Human Sciences Research Council:   
 Youth family dynamics and political activism, Pamela Reynolds, February 1994   
 Rhodes University:   
 It takes a whole village to raise a child, Youth development in Grahamstown, Charlotte van Hees, Institute of Social and Economic Research, October 2000   
 UN Development Programme:   
 Capacity building in the area of youth justice, web page project, 4 December 2000   
 University of the Witwatersrand   
 Growing up in violent situations, the South African situation, Diana Shmukler, undated   
 Urban Monitoring and Awareness Committee (UMAC):   
 Militarised youth, A UMAC project 1994-1998, April 1998, about youth development, training, May 1994   
 Hlengwize Mkhize:   
 A programme of mental health care for children exposed to violence, a case of the children and violence in South Africa Project, a paper presented at the congress 'Children war and persecution' in Hamburg, September 1993   
 The impact of civil and political strife on family violence, Children and Violence in SA, University of the Witwatersrand   
 Steve Mokwena   
 Living on the wrong side of the law. Marginalisation, youth and violence in South Africa   
 CILSA   
 Child custody and race in the light of the new South African Constitution, XXVIII CILSA, 1995   
 Comparative legal developments in child maintenance and their possible effect on SA, Brigitte Clark, CILSA no 2, 1993   
 Other:   
 Children at risk, How do we respond? PACA factsheet, no 40, March 1995   
 The influence of violence on children, Graham Hayes, Transformation 16, 1991   
 What young South Africans think, Murray McNally, Readers Digest, Special Report, undated   
    
8.7. Rehabilitation and education of children   
8.7.1. Clippings 1986-2001 2 files)   
 A number of organisations concerned themselves with the growing number of children affected by apartheid and the state of emergency. The newspaper clippings report on these initiatives, the reasons and solutions.   
8.7.2. Documents 991-1999 26 items)   
 Some items are undated.   
 Subjects include HIV/AIDS, social and church facilities, safe houses, reconciliation, role models and youth culture including music, clubs and drugs.   
 Items include:   
 Joint Centre for Political and Economic Studies:   
 The shock troops of liberation, Youth policy 7-15, guaranteeing a future for South African youth, A youth policy for South Africa, undated   
 National Youth Development Conferences:   
 Growing up tough, A national survey of South African youth, Evaratt and Orin, Broederstroom, March 1994   
 Regional youth conference, September/ October 1990:   
 Youth negotiations and peace   
 University of the Witwatersrand   
 Youth culture and resistance in South African education, A theoretical review, Michael Cross, Perspectives in Education 1999 vol 12 no 2, CASE   
 Putting youth on the national agenda, seven reports researched and written for the JEP, undated   
 Other:   
 Youth unemployment and policy in South Africa 1976-1992. Linda Chisholm, Development Southern Africa, vol 10, 4 November 1993   
 Street sociology and pavement politics, Aspects of youth and student resistance in Cape Town 1984, Colin Bundy, Journal of South African Studies vol 13, 3 April 1987   
 The politics of youth resistance in the 1980s: The dilemmas of a differential, Durban, Kumi Naidoo, Journal of South African Studies, vol 18, 1, March 1991   
 Values, views and expectations A study of black youth in Northern Transvaal and Northern KwaZulu Natal, Franks and Glass, Social Update, 4th quarter, 1994   
    
8.8. Juvenile justice 1993-1995 (29 items)   
 Reports, publications and papers including material from NICRO, dealing with diversion for juvenile offenders, community safety and diversions. Include:   
 Community Law Centre, University of the Western Cape:   
 South African juvenile justice today, 1995.   
 Letting in the light, Seeking justice for the children of South Africa, Childrens rights research, June 1993   
 NICRO:   
 Crime prevention through education, R Shapiro, Cape Town, 1992   
 Conviction of juvenile offenders, An overview of selected statistics 1977-1994, Muntingh, December 1995.   
 A review of sentencing trends in South Africa 1977-1984, Muntingh, undated.   
 Other:   
 In pursuit of juvenile justice, RSA Review, 1995   
    
8.9. Children and repression   
8.9.1. Clippings 1985-1990 (1 file)   
 Reports are about missing children, statistics, divorce, poverty, displacement, detention, allegations of torture and child abuse.   
8.9.2. Reports and publications 1986-1993 (1 box)   
 Includes reports, analyses and magazines. Subjects include the effects of war on children, campaigns for children affected by apartheid, and freedom of the press and media in reporting on marginalised children. Items include:   
 Black Sash:   
 Memorandum on the suffering of children in South Africa, April 1986   
 British Defence Aid Fund for South Africa:   
 The child is not dead, Youth resistance in South Africa 1976-1986   
 Community Law Centre, University of Cape Town:   
 Justice for the children, No child should be caged, 1992   
 Detainees' Parents Support Group:   
 A memorandum on children under repression, Abantwana Bazabalaza   
 Lawyers Committee for Human Rights:   
 The war against children, South Africas youngest victims, December 1986   
 UNICEF, National Children Rights Committee:   
 Children and women in South Africa, A situational analysis, June 1993   
 Children in the front line, The impact of apartheid, destabilisation and warfare on children in southern and South Africa, a report for UNICEF, March 1987   
 Children in prison in South Africa, A situational analysis, undated   
 University of Cape Town:   
 Children in prison in South Africa, F McLachlan, 1984   
 H Roux:   
 How revolutionaries use children, June 1988   
 Other:   
 Children in places of detention, A code for their handling by the Medical and South African Paediatric Association of South Africa, supplement to South African Medical Journal, 20 June 1989   
    
MAGAZINES   
 The magazines were published by political organisations such as the African National Congress and the Pan-Africanist Congress and trade unions. Kairos and its associated organisations published a number of magazines and journals that engaged with issues and human rights violations under apartheid. Shirebu deals with shipping and trade with South Africa, and is especially concerned with oil. SIM deals with a comprehensive range of human rights issues. Facts and Reports and the Abstracts Journal include collections of newspaper clippings from local and international press with subject indexes.   
    
 The magazines Kairos Berichten and Amandla were published by the Kairos Foundation.   
    
 The material dates from 1970 to 2001. Dates refer to the dates on the material. Some material, particularly from the 1970s and early 1980s is undated. The material is arranged alphabetically in order of title.   
    
9.1. Abstracts Journal   
 The Abstracts Journal is published by the African Studies Centre in Leiden, the Netherlands. It provides coverage of articles in periodicals and edited works on Africa in the field of social sciences and the humanities.   
9.1.1. 1985-1989 (20 items)   
9.1.2. 1991-1995 (19 items)   
9.1.3. 1996-2001 (23 items)   
9.1.4. Related material 1989-1993 (7 items)   
 These include a list of publications.   
    
9.2. Amandla   
 Magazine in Dutch about Southern Africa by Kairos, Komitee Zuidelijk Afrika and Boycot Outspan Actie, anti-apartheid groups based in the Netherlands.   
9.2.1. 1977-1986 (99 items)   
9.2.2. 1987-1996 (83 items)   
    
9.3. The African Communist   
 Journal of the South African Communist Party.   
9.3.1. 1983-1992 (37 items)   
9.3.2. 1993-2001 (24 items)   
    
9.4. ANC Weekly News Briefing   
 Collections of press cuttings from local and international press covering apartheid and extra-parliamentary activities.   
9.4.1. 1978 (43 items)   
9.4.2. 1979 (44 items)   
9.4.3. 1980 (53 items)   
9.4.4. 1981-1983 (153 items)   
9.4.5. 1984-1986 (101 items)   
9.4.6. 1987-1988 (100 items)   
9.4.7. 1989-1990 (47 items)   
    
9.5. Azania 1981-1995 (83 items)   
 Press cuttings on South Africa. Published by the Azania Committee in the Netherlands.   
9.6. Azania Contact1980-1981 (6 items)   
 Published by the Pan-Africanist Congress of South Africa Mission to the United Kingdom and Continental Europe.   
9.7. Azania Frontline 1983 (1 item)   
 Newsletter of the Azania (South Africa) Liberation Support Committee   
9.8. Azania News 1980-1982 (5 items)   
 Published by the Pan-Africanist Congress of South Africa   
9.9. Azania Today 1980-1982 (6 items)   
 Published by the Pan-Africanist Congress of Azania Observer Mission to the United Nations.   
    
9.10. Facts and Reports   
 Press cuttings on Southern Africa edited by the Holland Committee on Southern Africa. Early editions are bound into annual volumes. Indexes provide a comprehensive reference to organisations, regions and topics.   
9.10.1. 1973-1975 (3 items)   
9.10.2. 1976-1978 (4 items)   
 Includes the index for 1978   
9.10.3. 1979-1981 (77 items)   
 Includes the indexes for 1980, 1981   
9.10.4. 1982-1984 (73 items)   
 Includes the index for 1982   
9.10.5. 1985-1987 (71 items)   
9.10.6. 1988-1990 (75 items)   
 Includes the indexes for 1988, 1989, 1989   
9.10.7. 1991-1993 (71 items)   
9.10.8. 1994-1995 (42 items)   
    
9.11. Kairos Berichten 1972-1976 (16 items)   
 First journal of the Kairos Foundation in the Netherlands, published in Dutch. From 1997 the Kairos Berichten appeared in Amandla. See also 11.2.   
    
9.12. SIM   
 Studie- en Informatiecentrum Mensenrechten is published by the Netherlands Institute of Human Rights, Utrecht which promotes studies and disseminates information in the protection of human rights   
9.12.1. Netherlands Quarterly of Human Rights   
9.12.1.1. 1987-2000 (12 items)   
9.12.1.2. Offprint 1989 (1 item)   
 Nicholas Haysom:   
 Legerdemain in the Legal Domain, A Review of Recent Legislation in South Africa   
    
9.12.2. SIM Specials 1983-1999 (21 items)   
 Includes SIM Special No 10, Report of the International Conference, Refugees in the World, The European Community's Response, The Hague 7- 8 December 1989.   
9.12.3. Human Rights in Development Yearbook 1998 (1 item)   
    
9.13. Sechaba   
 Official organ of the African National Congress of South Africa   
9.13.1. 1969-1975 (60 items)   
 Includes a typed letter to subscribers dated 20 October 1970 concerning errata, a lost issue and subscription renewals.   
9.13.2. 1976-1982 (56 items)   
9.13.3. 1983-1990 (88 items)   
    
9.14. Shirebu   
 Publications, newsletters and reports published by the Shipping Research Bureau, an organisation founded in 1980 by Kairos and the Holland Committee on Southern Africa. Shirebu conducted research and published reports on the ways in which South Africa tried to obtain its crude oil imports to counter the embargo imposed by nearly all oil-exporting countries. Shirebu was closed down in 1994.   
9.14.1. Newsletter on oil embargo against South Africa 1985-1994 (32 items)   
9.14.2. Surveys and publications 1980-1991 (9 items)   
9.14.3. Related publications from Kairos 1976-1986 (3 items)   
 These include a paper on coal streams, one about Shell Oil and a joint United Nations seminar on the oil embargo.   
    
9.15. Umsebenzi 1989 (2 items)   
 A small newsletter published by the South African Communist Party.   
9.16. Workers Unity 1980-1989 (41 items)   
 Organ of the South African Congress of Trade Unions   
    
10 NAMIBIA   
 In 1919 the League of Nations gave South Africa a mandate to rule Namibia. This was revoked in 1966 by the General Assembly of the United Nations. South Africa continued to occupy Namibia, which was treated as a province of the Republic rather than a separate country. It was used as a military springboard into Angola and other neighbouring countries. The inhabitants were subject to the apartheid policies applied in South Africa. In 1988, agreement was reached between the UN and the SA government on an independence plan.   
    
 Kairos campaigns in Namibia include:   
 1970 Campaign about human rights violations in Namibia.   
 1977 Campaign for a Free Namibia in co-operation with other organisations. Publication of a report about torture in Namibia.   
 1979 Campaign against the role of the Royal Dutch Shell in South Africa.   
 1983 Campaign about Namibia with Rev Z Kameeta. See 10.8.4.2., 10.8.5.2., 10.8.6. and 10.8.11.2. United Nations year for sanctions against South Africa. Several activities to promote boycott, sanctions and disinvestment.   
 1985 Steunt uw geld apartheid? (Does your money support apartheid?)   
 1988 Campaign against the illegal occupation of Namibia.   
 Human rights mission to Namibia on behalf of the Working Group Kairos focussing on the role of Koevoet in Namibia. Publication of the report Koevoet versus the people of Namibia. Campaign with a number of other Dutch organisations focussing on the Development of an independent Namibia.   
    
 The Namibia material covers human rights violations, the conflict, the activities of the church, and the involvement of international organisations in reaching settlement and providing aid. The elections, repatriation of refugees, the resolution of the conflict and the development and rehabilitation of Namibia are reflected in the material. There are papers by David de Beer, a Christian activist who worked with Kairos and the late Bishop Colin Winter and was deported from Namibia. Also see 2.5.1.6. for a list of political prisoners and 3.3.1.4. for the assassination of Anton Lubowski.   
    
 The affidavits in 10.2.1. and 10.2.3. are embargoed until 2010. The affidavit in 10.2.2. has access restrictions.   
 Unpublished material may only be quoted with the permission of the author.   
 Dates reflect the dates of the material of which most is for the 1980s and to a lesser degree the 1970s and 1990s. Some material, particularly from the 1970s and early 1980s is undated or dates are illegible.   
    
 Arrangement categories of the material are:   
 Case or legal documents resulting from court cases and inquests   
 Clippings consist of reports from the popular press with some articles from magazines, extracts from newsletters and press releases   
 Documents include letters, minutes, reports and statements. In some sections ecumenical press releases, Amnesty International press alerts and journal articles are included under documents   
 Publications such as booklets, books and published reports and papers   
    
10.1. Human rights   
 The material is mostly for the 1980s with some for later dates. It consists of court case material, affidavits, clippings, documents and reports. The records of human rights violations extend from the time of South Africa's administration of South West Africa until after independence. Also see 10.13. Legislation and the law, especially the Van Dyk Commission of Enquiry.   
10.1.1. Court cases   
 These court cases took place from 1983-1988. The heading dates reflect the dates of the cases. Court documents deal with human rights violations and some such as the case concerning the curfew, have extensive supporting material such as affidavits and reports. Cases include cases brought against the authorities claiming for human rights violations applying for access to detainees, challenging state actions and legislation and the failure of the authorities to bring security force perpetrators to book. Other cases involve the authorities trying individuals in terms of security legislation. The testimony of Captain Ballack illustrates the attitudes and actions of the security forces against detainees. See 10.1.1.8.2.   
10.1.1.1. Torture   
10.1.1.1.1. Torture of a child 1986-1988 (1 file)   
 Paulina (Nokaa) Mundjele v Cabinet of SWA. Civil suit by the mother claiming damages for serious injuries resulting from assault during questioning of her 15 year old child Portas Blasius in Owamboland. Contents include:   
 Summons, 21 October 1986   
 Requests for further information by State, 11 December 1986   
 Letter to the General Secretary of Churches about an out of court settlement, 8 February 1988   
 Statement by the boy Portas Blasius, 8 February 1988   
 Record of a hearing   
    
10.1.1.2. Medical negligence   
10.1.1.2.1. Death of Ben Garises 1988 (1 file)   
 Mathilde Garises v Cabinet of the Interim Government of SWA.   
 Mathilde Garises sued for damages for the death of her husband Ben Garises. He died at Otjimbingwe Hospital in 1988 from sepsis resulting from incorrect treatment of appendicitis and neglect.   
    
10.1.1.3. Curfew   
10.1.1.3.1. Church challenges curfew legislation 1986 (1 file)   
 James Hamupanda Kauluma v The Cabinet of the Government of SWA.   
 The Anglican, Roman Catholic and Evangelical Lutheran Churches brought an action against the Interim Government of South Africa to invalidate curfew and associated legislation. Extensive affidavits deal with the effects of the curfew on people who travelled at night for medical or other legitimate reasons. Also discussed are the effects on a rural community such as that in Owamboland. Latrines are situated at some distance from homes, which resulted in the curfew laws being broken. Breaking of the curfew resulted in numerous assaults and deaths. There were also alleged incidents of security forces using the curfew as an opportunity to perpetrate human rights abuses against civilians. The applicants included James Hamupanda Kauluma, Bishop of the Anglican Diocese of Namibia, Bonifatius Haushiku, Bishop, Roman Catholic Church, Diocese of Windhoek, Kleopas Dumeni, Bishop, Evangelical Lutheran Church in Namibia.   
 The case referred to curfew legislation, Proclamation AG 9 of 1977, Sub-section 3, Order AG 50 of 1979 and Order AG 26 of 1978.   
 Contents include:   
 Transcript of a motion presented in the South West African Assembly on the curfew in the northern areas and for the termination of Etango, a political movement originating from the Broederbond in SA, which was active in the Owambo area.   
 Affidavit of Dr Salom Amadhila on page 253   
 Affidavit of Dr Kenneth Godfrey Abrahams on page 258   
 Affidavit of Kerry San McNamara, architect on page 373   
 Findings and incidents on pages 283 to 373   
 Affidavits of Jafet Shikong, a priest, on page 405   
 Affidavits of Armas Joel, an Owambo resident, Regine Ithete, widow of Johannes Kunambili Shilongo, on page 411   
 Affidavit of Peter Kalangula, Chairman of the Executive Authority of the Administration for Owamboland on page 421   
 Document from an inquest into death of Natan Andreas, Wambo, shot by a South African policeman, 19 October 1981   
 Documentation about three men shot by a guard, 14 October 1981   
 Documentation about two men wounded, 10 October 1981   
 Documentation about an unknown Owambo man who was shot through heart, 1982   
 Record of Malakia Namuongo/ Malakia Namugomgo, shot 6 February 1982   
    
10.1.1.4. Deportation   
10.1.1.4.1. Challenge of order to leave Namibia 1986 (1 file)   
 Ulrich Detlef Stephan Eins v National Assembly for the Territory of SWA.   
 Eins challenged legislation and an order for him to leave Namibia. Case refers to Act No 33 of 1985.   
    
10.1.1.5. Conscription   
10.1.1.5.1. Eduard Binga challenges call-up 1983-1984 (2 items)   
 Eduard Binga v Administrator General for the Territory of SWA   
    
10.1.1.6. Access to detainees   
10.1.1.6.1. Application for access to Josef Katofa 1985 (1 item)   
 Nikodemus Katofa applies for access to detainee incarcerated in Windhoek Prison.   
10.1.1.6.2. Application by churches and other organisations 1983-1984 (1 file)   
 James Hamupanda Kauluma v Minister of Defence   
 The churches and other organisations brought an action against the State demanding explanations and access to a large number of detainees taken into custody by the police and army. Application names detainees.   
    
10.1.1.7. Defence force, assault and murder   
10.1.1.7.1. Murder of Immanuel Shifidi 1986 (1 file)   
 Hilda Shifidi v Administrator General for SWA   
 Immanuel Shifidi was murdered by members of the South West African Territory Force and/or South African Defence Force at a SWAPO meeting at Katatura Township, Windhoek. Charges of murder against six defence force members were dropped (Case no Kataturano 14/12/86) by the authorities with a certificate issued by Advocate LA Pienaar (marked Annexure A in documentation). Hilda Shifidi, initiated a civil action against the defence force members who killed her father.   
10.1.1.7.2. Murder of Frans Uapota 1988 (3 files)   
 Victoria Mweuhanga v Cabinet for the Interim Government of SWA   
 Victoria Mweuhanga challenged the State for not prosecuting the murderers of her husband Frans Uapota (also referred to as Franis Mapote in some documents.   
 Include affidavits of Prof L Smith, a forensic pathologist and Dr JW van der Spuy, a specialist surgeon in trauma.   
10.1.1.7.3. Inquest into death of Amaludu Iita 1987 (1 file)   
 Transcript of inquest dated 19 August1987. Iita was assaulted and killed in Oshakati by the South West African Police Counter Insurgency unit, Swapoltn, also known as Koevoet. The testimony also describes assaults of children and others.   
10.1.1.7.4. Inquest into deaths of P Sakaria, N Fillemon 1987 (1 file)   
 Inquest for Petrus Sakaria, Nicodemus Fillemon . Involved Koevoet detention and shooting of two SWAPO members who had previously undergone rehabilitation. Includes inquest records, 16-18 November 1987.   
    
10.1.1.8. South West African People's Organisation (SWAPO)   
10.1.1.8.1. Illegal meeting 1986 (1 file)   
 The SWA Government v Frans Agula and others.   
 Frans Agula and six others tried under Internal Security Act No 83 of 1967 and Internal Security Act No 44 of 1950 for attending a SWAPO meeting.   
10.1.1.8.2. Murder and other charges 1986-1987 (1 file)   
 State v Andreas Johnny Heita. Andreas Johnny Heita, Salomo Paulus, Andreas Gideon Tongeni, Gabriel Mathews, Martin Akweenda, Johannes Nangolo, Petrus Kakede, Nangombe, Sagaria Shipanga, Balakius Namwandi, members of SWAPO charged with murder and other acts. Documents include part of transcript of an internal court hearing into Captain Ballack's treatment of detainees.   
    
10.1.1.9. Trade unions   
10.1.1.9.1. Student union challenges legislation 1988 (1 item)   
 NANSO, Ignatius Shiwhameni and others v the Cabinet of SWA.   
 Namibian National Students Organisation applied to the court to have Act 16 of 1988, the Protection of Fundamental Rights Act to be declared invalid.   
    
10.1.2. Affidavits   
 These have access restrictions placed on them by Kairos.   
10.1.2.1. The Hamukwaya Series, Koevoet activities 1982-1983 (1 file)   
 These consist of statements by victims of, and witnesses to, assaults by Koevoet, in East Kavango. This file is embargoed until 2010. Also see 2.1.3.3. Archbishop Dennis Hurley.   
10.1.2.2. Statement by Paulus David 1989 (1 item)   
 Part of a statement by Paulus David about his involvement with Koevoet. Restricted access conditions apply.   
10.1.2.3. Victims of torture 1977-1983 (1 file)   
 Affidavits and reports from victims of torture. Victims include children.   
 This file is embargoed until 2010.   
    
10.1.3. Clippings   
10.1.3.1. Cases 1983-1988 (1 file)   
 These relate to court cases and other cases of human rights abuses.   
10.1.3.2. Koevoet 1983 (2 files)   
 Include clippings on Johannes Paulus, a notorious member of Koevoet.   
10.1.3.3. SWAPO 1988-1989 (1 file)   
 Include allegations of torture in SWAPO camps.   
10.1.3.4. General human rights 1980-2001 (1 file)   
 Clippings includes references to detentions, rape, unlawful attacks on civilians, damage to property, bombings and the declaration of the state of emergency. Additional reports on individual cases. Other human rights issues such as homosexuality and freedom of association are mentioned.   
    
10.1.4. Documents   
10.1.4.1. Cases 1982-1987 (7 items)   
 Press releases about defence force activities against civilians.   
 Include press releases about deaths in detention and Hamukwaya.   
10.1.4.2. Koevoet 1983-1987 (7 items)   
 Include:   
 Press releases about detentions, Koevoet attacks, 1985   
 Reports on Koevoet 1983, 1985   
 Telexes about the attack on Katatura hostel and a church raid, 1987   
 UN news report about a patient abducted from the Lutheran Hospital   
10.1.4.3. SWAPO 1985-1989 (6 items)   
 This material covers abuses of detainees and refugees in SWAPO camps.   
 Items include:   
 Letter with translation of newsletter concerning allegations of SWAPO committing human rights abuses, 1985   
 Letter from Green Left in the Dutch Parliament to SWAPO, concerns the reported torture in SWAPO camps, 28 September 1989   
 Letter from Evangelische Kirche in Deutschland to President Sam Nujoma about reports of abuse from former SWAPO detainees, 12 October 1989   
 Attached, an open letter in German to President Sam Nujoma, 25 September 1989   
 Letter to Rev Siegfried Groth from Soldaat Ignatius Murorua describing torture by SWAPO, 16 August 1989   
 Report published by Evangelischer Pressedienst about human rights abuses against ex-SWAPO detainees and exiles, 28 September 1989   
10.1.4.4. General 1985-1988 (4 items)   
 Include documents, reports and statements about other human rights abuses.   
 Items include:   
 Statement, signed, from unions and SWAPO Youth league about defence force attacks in Rundu   
 Press release about the prosecution of Archbishop Hurley, 1985   
 Lists of persons detained   
    
10.1.5. Reports 1986-1990 (10 items)   
 These include detailed reports and statistics of human rights violations by the security forces in Namibia. Items include:   
 Human rights violations, in the Namibian 19861989   
 Human rights violations, in the Namibian 19871988   
 Young Amnesty International, Amnesty International pamphlet   
 Human rights violations in Namibia: human rights index based on reports in The Namibian 1986 1989, with preface and draft report   
 Report of a human rights mission to Namibia on behalf of the Working Group Kairos, Manfred Hind and Nadia Gevers Leuven-Lachinski, 1989. This report includes details of Koevoet activities, curfews, and human rights violations   
 Human rights violations by Koevoet members, draft   
 Human rights violations by the 101st SADF Battalion, draft   
 Repression in Namibia and the Kassinga detainees, includes details of campaigns, 1980   
 Current state of human rights in Namibia, David Smuts, 1986   
 The human rights situation at independence, Amnesty International, 1990   
    
10.2. Military activities   
 These include South African security force and SWAPO activities. An unusual item is material from a South African Military counter-insurgency intelligence meeting and a security conference held at Windhoek, 17-18 May 1984. (See 10.2.2.)   
10.2.1. Clippings 1981-1991 (3 files)   
 Include reports on raids into Angola   
10.2.2. Documents 1980-1988 (9 items)   
 Include article about operations on the Namibia-Angola border. Responsibility for some actions were disputed, with suspicions of covert military activities involved in apparent SWAPO attacks and border operations. Other topics are recruitment of SWAPO members as spies and abduction. Items also include:   
 Minutes, copy, with corrections, of a South African Military counter-insurgency intelligence meeting and a security conference held at Windhoek 17-18 May 1984   
 Death notices of Namibian civilians, which relate to defence force activities,   
 Article on conscription,   
 Hansard extracts with questions asked in the SA Parliament   
 Amnesty International report on Namibian defence force and other activities   
 Publications from the UN   
 Counter insurgency, a way of life, a pamphlet from the SWA/Namibia Information Service, 1980   
 The military situation in and relating to Namibia, standing committee report, UN, 1984